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were to take place at Warsaw. As all concessions and applications the King of Pruiba and his brother upon this head have proved inefset out for Silefia, about the same fectual, and that the Emperor contime that the Emperor did on his tinues immoveably fixed in his detoar, it was imagined that another termination. conference would have been held The calamities that have been between them, which might per- occasioned by the dearth in Bohebaps, in its effects, have been de- mia, and some other of the heredi. cisive of the future fate of some tary countries, exceed all descripother countries; it does not how- tion. In the former particularly, ever appear that any meeting took gold and silver are said, in a great place between those princes. measure, to have lost their usual ef• However ambitious the designs feet, and to become almost incaof this Prince might be, or have pable of procuring food of any sort; already shewn themselves, he still lo that the rich and the poor were continues, by the fimplicity of his finking equally under one genemanners, his attention to business, ral calamity. We have before oband his affability, to confirm the served, that the ravages made duraffections of his lubjects in a very ing the preceding year in that kinghigh degree.
dom by sickness were dreadful. It As this æra seems particularly appears that in the first eight months fatal to the assumed powers of the of the year 1772, the deaths in that court of Rome, it could not be kingdom amounted to 168,331, expected that a prince of the Em- which more than doubled the numperor's character, should overlook ber of births, in the same space of any of thote that militated with his time, and it was supposed that the own internal rights. He has ac- deaths during the last four months, cordingly claimed the investicure were in full proportion to those of of all the Bishoprics in his here- the preceding. And though the ditary dominions, and has already fury of the diitempers seemed conproceeded to the exercise of this fiderably exhausted, soon after the right, by appointing the bishops opening of the present year, they that are to succeed in four or five were not entirely abated, until fees, that became vacant in Bohe- the late harvest (notwithstanding mia and Hungary. This innova. the most extraordinary tempeits, tion has occasioned great trouble and unheard of devallations by at the court of Rome, where the field mice) brought food and health example, with respect to other Ro. at the same time to the distressed man Catholic powers, is considered people. as dangerous, as the measure is in To prevent, so far as human itself prejudicial to its interests. foresight may do, the return of so The Pope has accordingly used dreadful a calamity, has been an every means, and is said to have object of consideration with the offered to make great concessions, Emperor. To this purpose he has to prevent the Emperor from per proposed to the States of Bohemia, severing in a resolution, that strikes to abridge one-third of the statute lo fatally at the basis of papal work, which the peasants are ob. power. It is however faid, that liged to perform for their lords,
and zod which hitherto vas bo gota, dise, as they could before; though and cook up lo mech of their time, they were tren reckoned the quickthat they were rendered arterly is. ef at Erisg of any troops in the capable of coltivating their own worid. farms to any advantage. Tais Toe preisg of ses for the hamage and recetary Dealse, army has been carried on with as Las Rowever been trong!v odpoled moch adeity throug bout the by the great lords; be: as its En Prasaa domicioat, 25 it could peror perfeveres in his intention, bare been in the borteit war, so there is no doubt of his socceed. that even traagers have not been jag; as those matters, which wecld exemped from it. The new acprove impracticable to other pria. qarations have been particularly ces, ceaie to be discelties with drained of their alle men, who those that are beloved by their sob. are fex into garrison till they bejects.
COIRE perfect in their new occupa. The farther politicks of the tion, while the veteran troops are court of Berlin, are, as asual, ftill drawn oox to be ready for imme. jecrei. Win reipect to his mili- ciate service. Thes a double pur. Cary preparations, the King has pole is answered, and as the old not thewa less at duity, than his army is firengthened by the addi. younger, though not Bore active, tion of a new one, those provinces neighbour. He has accordingly are proportionally weakened, le fund means, with very little ad. that if a war fbould take place, ditional expence, to strengthen his they are rendered incapable of doarmies by an increase of between ing any thing effetual towards the 40 and 50,000 effective men, which recovery of their liberties. The he has done by increasing the com- King is said to have framed a new panies of foot, from 169, their regulation, by which one half of former complement, to 210 men the soldiers, are by an alternate each, without the addition of a facceflion, to be constantly emSingle officer in so great an aug- ployed duriog peace in agriculture mentation. He has also made an and manufactures, while the others alteration (which, however trifling as clofely attended to their military it may seem, will, it is said, be of duties. Though this regulation great consequence) in the ram-rods carries a specious appearance, it of his foldiers musets, which in may be doubied whether it will confequence of this regulation, are be productive of any very extraormade exactly alike at both ends, dinary advantages to agriculture, whereby the soldier will save the as the precariouíneis of the aliift. time, which he before loft, by ance will always throw a damp turning the ram-rod in charging ; upon the spirit of the farmer. and it is said that by this improve. The western Proffia is already inent, together wiib that of a new brought under the same military exercise, and mancuvres in firing, government with the rest of the in which they have been labori. King's dominions, the whole of ously instructed, the soldiers are which may be considered as a vast arrived at such perfection, as to encampment, of which Berlin confire twice as often now, in a given poses the head quartera. Com.
plete flete lists have been made out of of all his temporal and juridical all the cities, towns, and villages, righes, and put the people upon in the new acquisitions ; of the the same footing as to government houses and possessions; the number with the rest of their countrymen. of inhabitants of all ages in each, All business of almost every fort, and their respective occupations. had for time immemorral been carAll the males of a certain age, that ried on in Poland by the Jews. Exhave not been taken to supply the clusive of those occupations of mer. army, are enrolled in the militia, chandizing, brokerage, and mohave received an uniform, and are ney-dealing, which are common to obliged to learn their military ex. them in other countries, they here erciles. It is also said, that every superintended the noblemen's famale child when born, receives a milies, were their agents, factors, military collar, and ten dollars, by and managers of their eftates, and which he is ever after considered as the physicians, surgeons, apothea soldier immediately in the King's caries, inn-keepers, dealers, and service, and thereby liable to all tradesmen of the country. By this the rigour of the military laws. means they formed a very great This account, kowever, requires and considerable part of the naa degree of confirmation, which tion; and though the industry, it has not yet received ; as one of (arising from their freedom) of the the first and most popular acts of natives of Prussia rendered them the present King's reign, was the less necessary in that country, they taking off that shameful badge of were even there very numerous. flavery from the necks of several The King of Pruffia, however, whethousand children, on whom it had ther from a particular dilike to been imposed by his father.
this part of his new subjects, or The Bishop of Warmia in Royal. with a view to obtain great sums Pruffia, is a prince of the empire, of money from them, and perhaps and was by the ancient constitution also to acquire some knowledge of president of the kingdom, and por- the extent of their riches, published fessed under the Kings of Poland, an edi&t, by which all those Jews in little less than entire sovereignty in the new acquisitions, who were not his diocese, che nobility being im- possessed of a capital of 1000 mediately dependent upon him, and crowns, were peremptorily comexempted from all the royal juris- manded to quit the country within diations. The people accordingly a limited time. This severe proflattered themselves, that though scription, which broke through all they had changed their paramount the ties of blood, connection, aclord, they would in a certain de. quired habits, and country, occagree escape the face of the rest of fioned a deputation of twelve elders the kingdom, and still continue un- of the Polish synagogues, to interder the immediate government of cede with the King for their unfortheir bishop. Such an indepen; tunate brethren : in consequence dence in any part of his dominions, of which application, accompanied was little fúited to the views and with a present of 70,000 crowns, disposition of the King of Prussia; he remitced some part of the sevehe according ftripped the bilhop sity of the edict, by reducing the
qualification for living in the coure of the abbey of Oliva; which try to 500 crowns, and enlarging, though they had generally lain dorin certain cases, the term limited mant for several ceptories, and the for their departure.
city had the free occupancy of the Another edia was issued, by channel in queition ; from which which all religious bodies of whate only its value arose ; yet these ever profession, and the governors rights were at certain times claimof hospitals and public charities, ed, and about half a century ago, were obliged to send in an exact became so much an object of liti. account of their respective incoines gation, as to lay the foundation to the royal chamber at Marien- for a law suit, which was comwerder. By a third ordinance, all menced with the city of Dantzick persons were forbid, whether in at Warsaw: but which was never town or country, to dilmiss any of decided. their men servants, without first Upon the ratification of the giving nouice to the King's com- treaty of cellion at Warsaw, by missaries, and obtaining their lie which the King gave up his claims cence for so doing. These are on Dantzick, except his rigbts to some of the effects, which every or- the harbour, which he still retained, der of the people have already ex. he withdrew his troops from the perienced from the change of go three fuburbs of Schiedlics, Stolvernment.
zenburg, and Schotland, which he The King's conduct, with respect had before fortified, and declared to Dantzick, has been extremely royal towns, as well as from the various. The fate of that city is other posts they occupied 'in the still so uncertain, that a detail of neighbourhood of the city, only the proceedings relative to it, would infilling upon being repaid a large be as useless as void of entertain- sum of money which he had laid ment. At different times, the ap- out in the fortifications and to enplication of the maritime powers, gineers, together with some other and of the Russian minister, teemed demands, and being for the future to have operated in favour of the acknowledged as the protector of city ; and suddenly after, without Dantzick. Some transactions, howany apparent cause, the same vio- ever, which have taken place since lence and threats have again taken the close of the year, ihew that place; the tolls, excises, and port this unfortunate city is still in duties, have been suspended, re- as precarious a situation as it had newed, taken off, and laid on ; been before ; and that the only cerand every later account, teemed tainty it has left, is the loss of its wich new measures or regulations, liberties, and of its ancient power which overthrew the former, and splendor.
It appears that the Ruflian mini. The conduct of the Prussians iter, who acted the part of a me- with respect to Thorn, bears fo diator, has supported the King's great a fimilitude to that which claim to a part of the harbour, they observed at Dantzick, as to which in effect gives him the com- make it needleís to enter into the mand of the whole. This claim is particulars. Too much, however, tounded upon the territorial rights cannot be said in praise of that
virtue, tirtue, fortitude, and unconquer- under the protection of a protestant able perseverance, with which the prince. magiftrates and inhabitants have, The late revolution in Denmark, mder a blockade of two years, has not been productive of any withstood all the violences of ra- particular change in the internal pine, and the menaces of power, government, or public, conduct of and thewed themselves equally that country. Some severities to proof against want, temptation, printers, and some harsh orders and danger; who have had re. against the people's assembling, peatedly the hardiness to declare, and meeting in any considerable when apparently furrounded by in- numbers, seemed rather to sew a evitable destruction, that they knew weakness in government, than any of no sovereign but their lawful real cause for such suspicious proprince, and that in the last extre, ceedings, which should only be mity, they would freely part with practised in cases of the greatest their lives, sooner than refign their danger and neceflity. The Sieur liberties into the hands of unjust Thura, having written a piece, en. power. By this noble and deter. titled, The Prognosticators, which mined resolution they have hither reflected severely on the authors of to preserved them.
the late revolution, was condemned While the Jesuits have funk un- by the high tribunal to suffer the der the vengeance of the Roman fame punishment which Struensee Catholick powers, and the Pope and Brandt had already underhimself hath put the finishing hand gone. to their destruction, the King of The dangers which were' appre. Pruffia affords them that afylum hended from abroad, may be supand protection which they are de- posed to have had some share in nied in all other countries. It promoting the internal quiet. It would be of little consequence to is certain that the state of affairs in refine upon the motives or policy of Sweden, and the motions made on this conduct ; 'the King himself, in the fide of Norway in the beginning a letter to his agent at Rome, ac- of the year, were not a little alarm counts for it by observing, that by ing to the court of Copenhagen. the treaty of Breslau he had gua- The garrisons in that country, notranteed the religion in the state it withstanding the severity of the then was ; that he had never met climate. were accordingly repaired with better priests than the Jesuits; and reinforced in the depth of the and that he might inform the Pope, winter; and the troops were every that as he was of the class of here. where augmented, and put in the ticks, he could not grant him a best condition. The same diligence dispensation for breaking his word, was ufed in equipping a considernor for deviating from the duty of able fleet, and in pressing and raisan honest man, or a King. As the ing 6000 additional sailors; for Jesuits are possessed of several con- which purpose, all those in foreign Giderable colleges in Silesia, it re- service were recalled, and such mains to be seen, whether they will other mealures pursued, that soon pay obedience to the Pope's bull, after the opening of the Baltic,