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were to take place at Warsaw. As the King of Prulfi.i and his brother set out tor Silesia, about the fame time that the Emperor did on his tour, it was imagined that another conference would have been held between them, which might perhaps, in its effects, have been decisive of the future fate us fume other countries; it does not however appear that any meeting took place between thole princes.

However ambitious the designs of this Prince might be, or have already {hewn themselves, he Hill continues, by the simplicity of his manners, his attention to business, and his affability, to confirm the affections of his subjects in a very high degree.

As this æra seems particularly fatal to the assumed powers of the court of Rome, it could not be expected that a prince of the Emperor's character, should overlook any of thole that militated with his own internal rights. He has accordingly claimed the investiture of all toe Bishoprics in his hereditary dominions, and has already proceeded to the exercile of this right, by appointing the bishops that are to succeed in four or nve sees, that became vacant in Bohemia and Hungary. This innovation has occasioned great trouble at the court of Rome, where the example, with respect to other Roman Catholic powers, is considered as dangerous, as the measure is in itself prejudicial to its interests. The Pope has accordingly uied every means, and is said to have offered to make great concessions, to prevent the Emperor from persevering in a resolution, that strikes so fatally at the basis of papal power. Jt is however said, that

all concessions and applications upon this head have proved ineffectual, and. that the Emperor continues immoveably fixed in his determination.

The calamities that have been occasioned by the dearth in Bohemia, and some other of the hereditary countries, exceed all description. In the former particularly, gold and silver are said, in a great measure, to have lost their usual effect, and to become almost incapable of procuring food of any sort; lo that the rich and the poor were sinking equally under one general calamity. We have before observed, that the ravages made during the preceding year in that kingdom by sickness were dreadful. It appears that in the first eight months of the year 1772, the deaths in that kingdom amounted to 168,331, which more' than doubled the number of births, in the fame space of time; and it was supposed that the deaths during the last four months, were in full proportion to those of the preceding. And though the fury of the distempers seemed considerably exhausted, soon after the opening os the present year, they were not entirely abated, until the late harvest (notwithstanding the most extraordinary tempests, and unheard of devastations by field mice) brought food and health at the fame time to the distressed people.

To prevent, so far as human foresight may do, the return of so dreadful a calamity, has been an object of consideration with the Emperor. To this purpose he has proposed to the States of Bohemia, to abridge one-third of the statute work, which the peasants are obliged to perform for their lords,


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and which hitherto was so great, and took up so much of their time, that they were rendered utterly incapable of cultivating their own farms to any advantage. This humane and necessary measure, has however been strongly opposed by the great lords; bnt as the Emperor perseveres in his intention, there is no doubt of his succeeding; as those matters, which would prove impracticable to other princes, cease to be difficulties with those that are beloved by their subjects.

The further politicks of the court of Berlin, are, as usual, still secret. Wish respect to his military preparations, the King has not shewn less assiduity, than his younger, though not more active, neighbour. He has accordingly sound means, with very little additional expence, to strengthen his armies by an increase of between 40 and 50,000 effective men, which he has done by increasing the companies of foot, from 169, their former complement, to 210 men each, without the addition of a single officer in so great an augmentation. He has also made an alteration (which, however trifling it may seem, will, it is said, be of great consequence) in the ram-rods of his soldiers muskets, which in consequence of this regulation, are made exactly alike at both ends, whereby the soldier will save the time, which he before lost, by turning the ram-rod in charging; and it is said that by this improvement, together with that of a new exercise, and manœuvres in siring, in which they have been laboriously instructed, the soldiers are arrived at such perfection, as to }irc twice as often now, ut a given

time, as they could before; though they were then reckoned the quickest at firing of any troops in the world.

The pressing of men for the army has been carried on with as much assiduity throughout the Prussian dominions, as it could have been in the hottest war, so that even strangers have not beei* exempted from it. The new acquisitions have been particularly drained of their able men, who are sent into garrison till they become perfect in their new occupation, while the veteran troops are drawn out to be ready for immediate service. Thus a double purpose is answered, and as the old army is strengthened by the addition of a new one, those provinces are proportionally weakened, lo that if a war should take place, they are rendered incapable of doing any thing effectual towards the recovery of their liberties. The King is said to have framed a new regulation, by which one half of the soldiers, are by an alternate succession, to be constantly employed during peace in agriculture and manufactures, while the others as closely attended to their military duties. Though this regulation carries a specious appearance, it may be doubted whether it will be productive of any very extraordinary advantages to agriculture, as the precariousncis of the assistance will always throw a damp upon the spirit of the farmer.

The western Prussia is already brought under the fame military government with the rest of the King's dominions, the whole of which may be considered as a vast encampment, of which Berlin com* poses the head quarters. Complete

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■ffete lists have been made oat of all the cities, towns, and villages, in the new acquisitions; of the houses and possessions; the number of inhabitants of all ages in each, and their respective occupations. All the males of a certain age, that have not been taken to supply the army, are enrolled in the militia, have received an uniform, and are obliged to learn their military exercises. It is also said, that every male child when bora, receives a military collar, and ten dollars, by which he is ever after considered as a soldier immediately in the King's service, and thereby liable to all the rigour of the military laws. This account, however, requires a degree of confirmation, which it has not yet received; as one of the first and most popular acts of the present King's reign, was the talcing off that shameful badge of slavery from the necks of several thousand children, on whom it had been imposed by his father.

The Bishop of Warmia in RoyalPrufEa, is a prince of the empire, and was by the ancient constitution president of the kingdom, and possessed under the Kings of Poland, little less than entire sovereignty in his diocese, the nobility being immediately dependent upon him, and exempted from all the royal jurisdictions. The people accordingly flattered themselves, that though they had changed their paramount lord, they would in a certain degree escape the fate of the rest of the kingdom, and still continue under the immediate government of 'heir bishop. Such an indepen-v dence in any part of his dominions, was little suited to the views and disposition oftheKingof Prussia; h« according stripped the bishop

of all his temporal and juridical rights, and put the people upon the fame sooting as to government with the rest of their countrymen.

All business of almost every sort, had for time immemorial been carried on in Poland by the Jews. Exclusive of those occupations of merchandizing, brokerage, and money-dealing, which are common to them in other countries, they here superintended the noblemen's families, were their agents, factors, and managers of their estates, and the physicians, surgeons, apothecaries, inn-keepers, dealers, and tradesmen of the country. By this means they formed a very great and considerable part of the nation; and though the industry, (arising from their freedom) of the natives of Prussia rendered them less necessary in that country, they were even there very numerous. The King of Prussia, however, whether from a particular dislike to this part of his new subjects, or with a view to obtain great suras of money from them, and perhaps also to acquire some knowledge of the extent of their riches, publilhed an edict, by which all those Jews iu the new acquisitions, who were nat possessed ot a capital 'of iooo crowns, were peremptorily commanded to quit the country within a limited time. This severe proscription, which broke through alt the ties of blood, connection, acquired habits, and country, occasioned a deputation of twelve elders of the Polish synagogues, to intercede wi.h the King for their unfortunate brethren: in consequence of which application, accompanied with a present of 70,000 crowns, he remitted some part of the severity of the edict, by reducing the qualification qualification, for living in the country to 500 crowns, and enlarging, in certain cafes, the term limited for their departure.

Another edict was issued, by which all religious bodies of whatever profession, and the governors of hospitals and public charities, were obliged to lend in an exact account of their respective incomes to the royal chamber at Marienwerder. By a third ordinance^ all persons' were forbid, whether in town or country, to dismiss any of their men servants, without first giving notice to the King's commissaries, and obtaining their licence for so doing. These are some of the effects, which every order of the people have already experienced from the change of government.

The King's conduct, with respect to Dantzick, has been extremely various. The fate of that city is still so uncertain, that a detail of the proceedings relative to it, would be as useless as void of entertainment. At different times, the application of the maritime powers, and ot" the Ruffian minister, seemed to have operated in favour of the city; and suddenly aster, without a.iy apparent cause, the sam« violence and threats have again taken place; the.tolls, excises, and port duties, have been suspended, renewed, taken off, and laid on; and cvyry later account, teemed with new measures or regulations, which overthrew the former.

it appears that the Russian minister, who acted the part of a mediator, has supported the King's claim to a part of the harbour, which in effect gives him the command of the whole. This claim is founded upon the territorial rights

of the abbey of Oliva; whick though they had generally lain dormant for several centuries, and the city had the free occupancy of the channel in question; from which only its value arose; yet these rights were at certain times claimed, and about half a century ago, became so much an object of litigation, as to lay the foundation for a law suit, which was commenced with the city of Dantzick at Warsaw: but which was never decided.

Upon the ratification of the treaty of cession at Warsaw, by which the King gave up his claims on Dantzick, except his rights to the harbour, which he still retained, he withdrew his troops from the three suburbs of Schiedlits, Stolzenburg, and Schotland, which he had before fortified, and declared royal towns, as well as from the other posts they occupied in the neighbourhood of the city, only insisting upon being repaid a large sum of money which he had laid out in the fortifications and to engineers, together with some other demands, aud being for the future acknowledged as the protector of Dantzick. Some transactions, however, which have taken place since the close of the year, lhew that this unfortunate city is still in as precarious a situation as it had been before ; and that the only certainty it has left, is the loss of its liberties, and of its ancient power and splendor.

The conduct of the Prussians with respect to Thorn, bears so great a similitude to that which they observed at Dantzick, as to make it needless to enter into the particulars. Too much, however, cannot be said in praise of that

virtue. time, fortitude, and unconquerable perseverance, with which the magistrates and inhabitants have, mder a blockade of two years, withstood alt the violences of rapine, and the menaces of power, and (hewed themselves equally proof against want, temptation, and danger; who have had repeatedly the hardiness to declare, when apparently surrounded by inevitable destruction, that they knew of no sovereign but their lawful prince, and that in the last extremity, they would freely part with their lives, sooner than resign their liberties into the hands ot unjust power. By this noble and determined resolution they have hitherto preserved them.

While the Jesuits have funk under the vengeance of the Roman Catholick powers, and the Pope himself hath put the finishing hand to their destruction, the King of Pruffia affords them that asylum and protection which they are denied in all other countries. It would be of little consequence to refine upon the motives or policy of •hisconduct; 'the King himself, in a letter to his agent at Rome, accounts for it by observing, that by •he treaty of B.-eslau he had guaranteed the religion in the state it then was; that he had never met with better priests than the Jesuits; and that he might inform the Pope, that as he was of the class of hereticks, he could not grant him a dispensation for breaking his word, nor for deviating from the duty of »a honest man, or a King. As the Jesuits are possessed of several considerable colleges in Silesia, it renains to be seen, whether they will pay obedience to the Pope's bull,

under the protection of a protestant prince.

The late revolution in Denmark, has not been productive of any particular change in the internal government, or public, conduct of that country. Some severities to printers, and some harm order* against the people's assembling, and meeting in any considerable numbers, seemed rather to shew 2 weakness in government, than any real cause for such suspicious proceedings, which should only be practised in cases of the greatest danger and necessity. The Sieur Thura, having written a piece, entitled, The Prognosticators, which, reflected severely on the authors of the late revolution, was condemned by the high tribunal to suffer thesame punishment which Struensee and Brandt had already undergone.

The dangers which were apprehended from abroad, may be supposed to have had some share in promoting the internal quiet. It is certain that the state of affairs in Sweden, and the motions made on the side of Norway in the beginning of the year, were not a little alarmitig to the court of Copenhagen. The garrisons in that country, notwithstanding the severity of theclimate. were accordingly repaired and reinforced in the depth of thewinter; and the troops were every where augmented, and put in the best condition. The fame diligencewas ufcd in equipping a considerable fleet, and in pressing and raising 6000 additional sailors; for which purpose, all those in foreign service were recalled, and such, other measures pursued, that soonaster the opening of the Baltic,


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