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which he fulfilled his promise to the Grand Signior; and as he seems at present to stand very fairly, for being the fecund man in that great empire, and that his history, besides, is curious, it may not be improper to take some notice of it.
This extraordinary adventurer was born in Persia; and by one of those sudden revi'lu.ions os fortune, to which the natives of thoie wide A si J tic regies have in all times been more liable than those of any other part of the wtrld, was reduced in his infancy to a state of slavery. This early change in his condition was the consequence of one os those irruptions which the avarice of the Turks has continually prompted them to make into that ruined empire, since the death of Nadir Shah. He fell by purchale into the hands of" a native of Kodollo, in Romania, by whom he was brought up; but growing impatient of" his condition when he arrived at maturity, and the situaii >n of that city, upon the LVopontis, being favourable to his purpose, he, by the assistance of a Greek, made his escape to Smyrna.
A - his genius lay wholly to war, and the Ottoman empire afforded no opportunity then for his indulging it, he enlisted among the re cruits that are usually railed in that neighbourhood for the service of the state of Algiers, and was sent with the rest to Africa. The Algerir.es were then engaged in a not war with the inland Moors, who arc the original possessors, and rightful owners of the country; but from whom that state, partly by force, and more by fomenting the divisions between their princes, extort a precarious submission. Our
adventurer, by an extraordinary intrepidiry, uncommon bodily endowments, and a presence os mind and invention, which sound continual resources in the greatest dangers, was soon distinguished from his fellows, and by a most rapid progress, rose from being a slave to the command of an army. Having now room for the exertion os his abilities, and the display of his genius, he conducted the war so successfully, and concluded it so much to the advantage of the slate, that the government of the city and province of Constantia, the richest and best belonging 10 Algiers, was conferred on him as a reward for his services.
But Hassan soon experienced the effects of that envy which always attends fortunate merit, for though lie preserved his government for some years, he at length sound so powerful a cabal formed against him at Algiers, that he had no other means for the s.ving of his, life, and .he wreck of his fortune, but by a precipitate flight into Spain, whither he carried the most portable and valuable of his effects.
The present king of Spain having some knowledge of his merit and quality, gave orders that he should be received and treated with distinction, and afterwards, at his own desire, forwarded him to Naples. There he had the good fortune to freight a Danish ship, which afterwards proved the means of saving his life, and in which he embarked with his effects (which were worth too ooo crowns) for Constantinople. Upon his arrival there, the Agent from Algiers immediately obtained an order for the seizing of his person, as a deserter
from from that state; which having put in execution, he was next proceeding to the confiscation of his effect*. In this design he was however vigorously and successfully opposed by Mr. Gah'er, the Danilh minister at the Porte, who immediately sent his janissaries on board the vessel, and insisted upon supporting the honour of his master's flag, by protecting every thing that was in her.
As the discussion of this subject made some noise, and took up some time, it gave Hassan Bey an opportunity, which he did not neglect, os having his affairs represented to the Grand Signior; and of shewing his services to Algiers, and the design upon his life, which could have been only prevented by his flight. He at the fame time declared his zeal for the Porte, and made a lender of his services in such a manner, as (hewed that he considered it to be of importance; an offer which was the more acceptable, as the present war was either then begun or in contemplation. It is also probable, that as his treasure was. through the spirited conduct of Mr. Gahler, at his own disposal, he sound means to employ fime part of it to better purpose in the seraglio, that it wuld have answered in the hands of the Algerine agent. Ho-.vever that was, he was discharged, and immediately appointed to the command of a snip of the line. He afterwards acted as vice-admiral in the engagement at Cisme, where the not taking his advice, in standing out to sea and engaging the Rusiians, first cost the captain baflia his fleet, and afterwards his head. In the general destruction of that night, Hassan Eey signalized himself ac
usual; he being the only Turkish officer that laved his ship, which he did by forcing his way bravely through the Human fleet.
This extraordinary man is at present the idol of the people, who look upon him as the restorer of the Ottoman glory. It Teems, indeed, as if the Grand Vizir and he may, not unaptly, be considered as the Fabius and Marcellus of the Turkish empire. Theenterprizing spirit, and brilliant actions of the latter, are, however, better known and understood by the people, and more captivating to their imagination, than the stedfast, deliberate wisdom, and judicious conduct of the former, and they are accordingly loud in their wishes for Hasfan Bey's being promoted to his p.lace. This must naturally breed a jealousy between those great officers, which may deprive the state in a great measure of their services, and possibly end in the ruin of one or the other. Whatever Hassan Bey's merits may be, the Porte is probably indebted for its existence to Mouflon Oglou.
While the western and northern boundaries of the Ottoman empire, have been liable to the ravages of a cruel and destructive war, its eastern limits have been depopulated by that fatal destroyer of mankind the pestilence. This dreadful scourge, seems either to have varied its form, or under its old, to have assumed a degree of malignity, which is not perhaps to be equalled in history. The undent city of Bagdat was the first victim to its vengeance, where it carried off, (as i,t is fiid) the amazing number of 250,000 people. The fugitives, who fled in great numbers to Bassora, near the mouth of the Euphrates phrates and the gulph of Persia, brought their fears and the disorder along with them, at the distance of 240 miles. Here it raged in all its fury, sweeping away the people for some time, at the rate of six or seven thousand a day. Most of the western christians perished; the English factory saved their lives by flying into Persia, choosing rather to trust to the clemency of the usurper Kesim Khan, though their declared enemy, than to the rage ef the implacable disorder. The event justified their conduct; and upon their return, they found only death and desolation in the place of a great city.
There is little room to doubt, that the change of affairs which were apprehended in Sweden upon the accession of a new King, had a considerable influence upon the conduct of Russia, with respect to her listening to terms of accommodation, and agreeing to the congress of Foczani; and it is as little to be doubted that the subsequent revolution in that kingdom, had a principal share in the renewing of the armistice, and the entering into fresti negociations at Bucharest. Indeed, it is probable, that this was the best, if not the only reason which could be given, for Russia's entering into a cessation, which was of such infinite advantage'to the enemy.
The emigration of a whole nation of Tartars from the Russian dominions, may be considered as one of the most extraordinary events of the present year. A great tribe of the Calmuc-Tartars, which was called the Torgut, had long inhabited the vast desarts of the kingdom of Astracan, where, under a limited submission to the Russian
government, they fed innumerable herds of cattle, and carried on a very considerable trade with Astracan, and the towns on the Wolga, whither they sent cows., stieep,. horses, leather, and hides, for which they were paid in corn, meal, rice, copper kettles, knives, tools, iron, cloth, and other Russian commodities. These Tartars were so numerous, as to be able to raise 30,000 fighting men, and whether it was, that they met with any late causes of disgust, or that they imagined the increase of the Russian power would daily render that liberty which was so dear to them, more precarious, however it was, they determined to quit the country.
They conducted this scheme with so much secrecy, that the smallest suspicion was not harboured of their design, till they set out with their wives, children, and all their effects for the country of Zongoria, in the Eastern Tartary, which had been the ancient residence of their ancestors, and lies between the Chinese Tartary, Siberia, and the Lesser Bocharia. In this prodigious journey, they were obliged to traverse a considerable part of the Russian dominions, and two strong bodies of troops were sent without effect in pursuit of them. Exclusive of the benefits derived from their trassick, and the value of the mass of effects which they carried with them, the loss of such a number of people, and the total depopulation of those unbounded wildernesses, that stretch so far on all sides of Astracan, must be prejudicial to Russia. It may, however, prove the means of enquiring minutely into the causes of dissatisfaction that operated upon these people, and of regulating her suture conduct elect in such a manner, as to preserve the affections of those Tartars, who form so great a body of her subjects, and of paying a cautious attention to that unconquerable love of liberty, which, in a greater or lesser degree, prevails through all their various nations.
Notwithstanding the pacific profession on both sides, certain appearances and preparations in Sweden, were evidently alarming to the court of Petersburg, and occasioned the sitting out of a very considerable fleet to cruize in the Baltic, as well as the keeping of an army upon the frontiers. Both these measures, however necessary they might have been, were highly inconvenient to Russia at this period, as the sir It prevented her from sending a reinforcement to the fleet in the Archipelago; and the second, obliged her to keep a considerable number of her best troops unemployed, at a time that they were mnch wanted both on the Danube »nd in the Crimea.
The fame cause made it thought necessary to enter into a stricter union with Denmark, which was cemented by a treaty of infinite advantage to the latter. In consequence of this treaty, the Grand Duke of Russia has made a formal cession and renunciation of his patrimonial rights and dominion in the dutchy of Holstein,- to the King tf Denmark, who in return, as the fiudow of an equivalent, has ceded the miserable county of Oldentargh, and the city of Delmenhorst, with its territory, to the Grand
Nov. ,6th, Duke; T,Ws imP°»a« transfer of territory and
*' dominion, was execut
'd at Kiel, the capital of Holstein,
where the members of the regency, the civil officers, nobility, and people, were assigned over, and took oaths of allegiance to the King of Denmark; and the cession was compleated, by the delivery ofrtbe keys of the city, and of a piece of earth, to Count Reventlau, the Danish minister.
Thus have both powers parted with the original inheritance of their ancestors, and one in particular, with that which promised more security and greater permanence, than any other of-his extensive potsessions. As the cession made by Denmark could be of no use to the Great Duke, and from its situation and diliance was scarcely tenable, he has presented it to his relation the Duke of Holstein Eutin, Prince Bishop os Lubeck, by which those territories, and the lands belonging to the bifhoprick. will become hereditary in that family.
The articles of the treaty are not published; but from the price paid by Russia, it is probable that an offensive and defensive alliance of the strongest nature must be its basis. It is said, that upon the continuance of the war, Denmark i* to send a considerable naval force to the Mediterranean, to the assistance of the Russians; and there is no doubt, in certain circumstances, that its principal forces by sea and land may be liable to be called forth. In the beginning of the year, while the treaty was yec in agitation, and long before its conclusion, a strong squadron was fitted out by the Danes, and kept in a readiness for service during the greater part of the season; and no secret was made of its being intended to join Admiral Basiballe,
the the Ruffian commander, is any event should take place in the Baltic, which required their mutual exertion.
As the Grand Duke was now far advanced in his twentieth year, a marriage was determined upon between him and one of the princesses of Hesse Darmstadt; and as it was thought proper, in a matter of such importance to his happiness, that the choice should rest solely with himself, the Landgravine, and her three daughters, arrived at Petersburg for that purpose. The Grand Duke's choice was soon determined in favour of the Princess Wilhelmina, who was about a year younger than himself; and that lady having conformed to the Greek religion, was baptized in that faith by the new names of
Natalia Alexiowna. The
'marriage was some time after solemnized with great magnificence, the Grand Duke having then entered into his 21 si year.
A few days prior to the Great Duke's marriage, and on the anniversary of her coronation, the Empress loaded Count Panin, who had been his governor, with honours and emoluments. She bestowed upon that nobleman an estate for ever, valued at near 7000I. a year, and a pension for life to the same amount, besides an appointment of about half that sum, for conducting the department of foreign affairs, together with the choice of any house in Petersburg, to be purchased for his residence, and an allowance of money for plate and furniture, of about 35,0001. She alto shewed a proportional munificence to all the orticersof the Grand Duke's late houshold.
f •••oti, Count Byron, Duke
of Courland, died at a great age, on the last day but one of the preceding year, and was succeeded by his (on. As the reigning duke was known to be in no degree of favour at the court of Petersburg, his possession of that dutchy was held to be very precarious; while it was generally thought that it would have been thrown in as an equivalent on one side or other in the partition of Poland, and probably might by some marriage arrangement be formed with some of the adjoining provinces into an independent state. It is probable, that whatever difficulties prevented the execution, more than one design of this nature was in contemplation; and the Duke himself was so sensib'e of the dangerous ground he stood on, that he attempted to bring about a match with one of the remaining princesses of Hesse Darmstadt, in hopes thereby to strengthen his interest. This design was crushed as soon as it was known, by the empress, who is said to have sent him word, that he had no occasion to think yet of matrimony. In this hopeleis situation, he was summoned to Petersburg, and his ruin was thought to be decided; but a change loon appeared in the conduct and designs of the court; whatever it proceeded from, he suddenly became a favourite at court, and the empress has concluded'a marriage, for him with a Russian princess.
The greatest attention has been unremittingly paid to the forming of a great fleet in the several ports of the Baltic, where Sir Charles Knowles, who obtained permission to retire from the British lcrvice, and engage in the Russian, has exerted his well-known knowledge