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ever since been appropriated to his use, yet, in a sc^es of years, other composers have hit upon the fame thoughts: it is with music as with delicate wines, which not only become fla( and insipid, when exposed to the air, but which are injured by time, however loell-kept.

M. Quantz bore no other part in the performance of the concertos of to-night, than to give the time with the motion of his hand, at the beginning of each movement, except now and then to cry out brwvo! to his royal scholar, at the end of the solo parts and closes; which seems to be a privilege al. lowed to no other musician of the band. The cadences which his majesty made were good, but very long and studied. It is easy to discover that these concertos were composed at a time when he did not so frequently require an opportunity of breathing as at present; for in some of the divisions, which were very long and difficult, as well as in the closes, he was obliged to take his breath, contrary to rule, before the passages were finished.

After these three concertos were played, the concert of the night ended, and I returned to Potsdam ;. but not without undergoing the same interrogatories from all the centincls, as I had before done in my way to Sans-Souci.

As some of my readers may, perhaps, be curiou* to know in what manner his majesty spends his time each day, at Sans-Souci, I shall here present them with a detail of that regular disposition of it, to which he has stiidUy adhered, during peace, ever since he began his reign: indeed, the evolutions of his soldiers, on the parade, can

not be more exact than his ovn

diurnal motions.

His majesty's hoar of rising is constantly at four o'clock in the morning, during summer, and at five in winter; and from that time till nine, when his ministers of different departments attend hira, he is employed in reading letters, and answering them in the margin. He then drinks one dish of cosset, and proceeds to business with liis ministers, who come full fraught with doubts,difficulties, documents, petitions, and other papers, to read. With these he spends two hours, and then exercises his own regiment on the parade, in the fame manner as the youngest colonel in his service.

At twelve o'clock he dines. His dinner is long, and generally with twelve or fourteen persons; after this he gives an hour to artists and projectors; then reads and signs the letters, written by his secretaries, from the marginal notes which he had made in the morning. When this is over, he thinks the business of the. day is accomplished; the rest is given to amusement: after his evening concert, he gives some time to conversation, if disposed for it, and his courtiers in waiting constantly attend for that purpose; but whether that is th» cafe or not, he has a lecturer to read to him, every evening, titles and extracts of new books, among which he marks such as he wishes to have purchased for his library, or to read in his cabinet. In this manner, when not employed in the field, reviewing his treops, or in travelling, he spends his time: always retiring at ten o'clock, after which, however, he frequently reads, writes, or composes music


for his flute, before he goes to bed.

I did not quit Potsdam, before I had again had the honour to partake of Lord Marshal's hospitality, by dining with his lordship'a se. cond time ; where wit, good breeding, and good humour crowned the board. After which, while I was preparing for my return to Berlin, I received a message from Co). Forcade, to acquaint me that the Prince of Prussia desired me to sup with him, at half an hour past six, and that he would present me to his royal highness. This great and unexpected honour somewhat embarrassed me, as it was my full intention to get to Berlin that evening time enough to go to the Academia, or concert, to which I had been invited, and which, I had been told, would be made as brilliant in performance as possible, on my account; but the fear of not appearing sufficiently sensible of the prince's condescension, and, indeed, of not executing properly the commission which I had undertaken concerning the books, determined me to Aay.

At half an hour past six in the evening, I therefore went to the paiace of the prince royal, where I expected to hear music; but cards and conversation silled up the tim?, till supper. At my entrance, I had the honour os being presented to his princess, who is fair, rather tall, and possessed of that pleasing degree of plumpness, which the French call I'embonpoint char, mane. With a person infinitely less agreeable than falls to the share of this princess, her uncommonly gracious and condescending address and manner would captivate every one whom she honours with her nolice.

Her royal highness had hear! that I had been with the Lord Marshal, and that I was attached to music; and upon these subjects (he politely dwelt a considerable time. She plays the harpsichord well herself, as I was assured, and was very curious and conversible about music: even while at cards, she condescended to address herself to me very frequently; and at last asked me if I had known her brother when he was in England r—I then recollected, and not before, that her royal highness was a princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, and sister to that prince of Hesse - Darmstadt, who last year the tour of England, and to whom I had had the honour of being presented in London.

During this time, a young prince of two years of age, and his sister, of only a year old, were brought into the card-room to the princess their mother; and, not long after, the Prince of Prussia entered, to whom I had the honour of being presented. His royal highness is tall, and of a manly, plain, natural, and agreeable character. At supper, he was Ib gracious as to make me (it down on his left hand, and to .lddress the discourse to me almost the whole evening. Me was chearful and open, and seemed very well acquainted with the present state of the several countries of Europe, particularly England. Music had a considerable lhare in the conversation, and it was not difficult to discover that his royal highness is less strongly attached to old music, and to old masters, than his Majesty.

Upon the whole, my expectations from Berlin were not quite answered, as I did not find that

T 3 the

the style of composition, or manner osexecution, to which his Prussian Majesty has attached himself, fulfilled my ideas of perfection. Here, as elsewhere, I speak according to my single feelings: however it would be presumption in me to oppose my own judgment to that cf so enlightened a prince, is, luckily, mine were not the opinion pf the greatest part of Europe, for, iliouM it be allowed, that his Prussian Majesty has fixed upon the Augustan age of music, it does not appear that he has placer] his favour upon the best composers of that age. Vinci, Pergolesc, Leo, Feo, Handel, and many others, who flourished in the best times of Graun and Qumtz, I think superior to them in taste and genius. Of his Majesty's two favourites, the one is languid, and the other frequently common and insipid,—and yet, their names are religion at Berlin, and more sworn by, than those of Luther and Calvin,

There are, however, schisms in this city, as elsewhere; but heretics are obliged to keep their opinions t< themselves, while those of the establishment may speak out: for though an universal toleration prevails here, as to different sects of christians, yet, in music, whoever dares to profess any otner tenets than those of Graun and Quantz, is sure to be persecuted.

The music of this country is more truly German than that of any other part of the empire; for though there are constantly Italian operas here, in carnival times, his Prussian Majesty will suffer rone to be performed but those of Graun, Agricola, or Masse, and of this lat, and best, but very few. And, in the opera house, as in the field, his Majesty is such a rigid disciplinarian, that if a mistake is made in .a single movement or evolution, he immediately marks and rebukes the offender j and if any of his Italian troops dare to deviate from strict discipline, by adding, altering, or diminishing a single passage in the parts they have to perform, an order is sent, Jt par It Rei, for them to adhere strictly to the notes written by the composer, at their peril. This, when compositions are good, and a singer is licentious, may be an excellent method; but certainly (huts out all taste and refinements. So that music is truly stationary in this country, his Majesty allowing no more liberty in that than he does in civil matters of government: not contented with being sole monarch of the Jives, fortunes, and business of his subjects, he even prescribes rules 19 their most innocent pleasures.


S/ate of the Ottoman Empire at the opening of the congress at Bucharest.
Abilities of the Grand Vizir; time of the cessation profitably employed;
Unwearied perseverance in establishing order and discipline in the army.
French consul at the Dardanelles becomes a renegade, and establishes a
military school. War in Syria. Ali Bey reduces Joppa, and marches at
the head of an army for the recovery of Egypt; is defeated in a bloody
battle near Cairo, and taken prisoner by Mahomet Bey Aboudaab ; his
death. . Tribute sent from Egypt ; good consequences of the reduction ef
that country. Cheik Dahcr. Armaments in the Black Sea. Some account
of' Hoffein Bey. Dreadful plague at Bagdat and Baffora. Russia. Ob-

servations on the armistice- Migration rf the Torgul tribe of Tartars.

Fleet in the Baltic; alliance 'with Denmark; cejstcn of Holstein. Grand

Duke's marriage. Duke cf Courland. Rujjian marine. Issue of the

iu ar in Georgia. Silver panes discovered. Magnanimity of the Empress;

conduct with ri.fp.e3 to the commercial failures; attention and regard to the

English merchant,;. Forties in [23


King of Poland's circular letter. The grand council of the nation assembled

at Warsaw. Measures for the. holding of the diet. Articles presented

by the ministers of the partitioning poviers. Memorial; threats; answer;

declaration from the P ruffian minis er. Ferment in the di\t. W'arfavj

surrounded by the foreign troops. Protejls against the diet. New con-

federacy, under the auspices cf the allied powers. Foreign troops enter the

city, and are quartered in the palaces of the principal nobility. Heavy

cjntributions threatened to be imposed. Peremptory order to the diet, to

1 orclude the ac? of cession •within eight days. The ad passed, in the diet

and senate, a'idsigned by the King. Delegates appointed, and the diet
breaks up. New hfttm of government proposed. Treatks concluded by
the delegation with the ministers cf the allied powers, and ratified by the
t\ing. Some particulars of the treaty <witb the King of Prussia. Empe-
ror. Dearth, and dtpcpulation in Bohemia. Court of Berlin; condi::
observed with respefl to the new provinces ; sews; Dantzick ; fortitude of
the citizens ofThorn; fesuils protected. Denmark; treaty with Rkstia.
Sweden; calamities in the provinces; preparations; Finland peajai.ts;
letter from the King to the Count de Hopken. 1 f 3c


C H A P. V.

Naval preparations in the French and Spanish ports. Pacific disposition of
the trench king. Marriage of the Count de jHrtcis. Spoilt"; cc'nduQ imtb
rfpeSt lo England; scheme fer establishing a direct tfade with the Ehsi-
Indiel. Pcrlugal; edicl to prevtnt slavery from being perpetual. Cesrt

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