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between any two of the partiiioning powers, except in what immediately relates to their shares ot Poland.
Among the evils engendered by the prelent age, there is no one perhaps more fatal in its tendency, or contagious in its example, than that wriirh is now become fashionable in Germany and the North, of reviving or letting up of obsolete and antiquated claim and titles. The dangerous success which has already attended this conduct, will extend the evil, if not timely and effectually checked) to the loosening of all security, and the rendering all property precarious. A claim of this nature, upon the city pf Hamburgh, has lately been Hatted, and put in at Vienna, by Count Sthombcrg. As the title of the Hamburghers to their liberties, besides an original purchase several times acknowledged and confirmed, and a public declaration by the diet of the empire in the year 1510, by which Hamburgh was acknowledged a free and imperial city, Was strengthened by a prescription of five hundred years standing, such an attempt at any other period, wourd only have afierded matter for mirth or ridicule. The cale is now however very different; and the Hamburghers having understood that a neighbouring monarch was in treaty to purchase the Count's title, and had probably urged him to the lctiuig up of the claim, the fate of DantzicL struck them in all its terrors, and has given them no insufficient cause for the most grievous apprehensions.
A claim in feme degree of the fame nature, though not attended u/ith the fame terror, h;<s been made by the King ps Prussia upon
the States of Holland. This claim consists in a debt, of above a century standing, and amounting to more than four millions of florins, which is pretended to be owing from several of the cities belonging to the Republic, in the dutchy of Cicves, to the house of Brandenburgh. On the other side it was said, that this supposed debt, with the titles on which it was • sounded, had been expressly abolished by the treaty concluded in August 1698, between the Elector of Brandenburgh, Frederic the First, and their High Mightinesses. As the demand for payment was however very picil'ng, it caused some alarm in Holland ; memorials were pre.entcc, and answers returned: but the affair does not yet seem to be determined.
An exchange of territory ha* been much talked of, between the King of Prussia and the Duke of Mecklenburgh Schwerin, by which the latter resigns his principality, and receives the King's part of the dutchy of Cleves in return. Tho* it may be highly eligible to a weak prince, to get out of the talons of an overgrown neighbour, who surrounds, oppresses, and overwhelms him upon every occasion, and that the value of the equivalent is not so much considered in such a situation as the immediate ease and security that attend it; yet such an exchange, in the present state of affairs, would establish a most dangerous precedent in Germany, Proposals would soon be made to other weaker princes, to induce them to accept of equivalents, and such means would be taken with those who were not compilable, to render their inheritance uneasy ancj pf no use to them, that in a little
tjms time they would deem it a happiness to obtain any exchange. Such measures are probably the first that will be taken, to prepare the way for a total change ot system in Germany.
Indeed that empire seems to be in as precarious a situation, as it has been at any time since its foundation. The equilibrium is entirely overthrown; and it must be only by a series of the moll extraordinary events, that it can be restored. The fate of the venal and arbitrary Polish nobility, presents a mirror to the German princes, which they could not too long nor too attentively study.
The total abolition of the Jesuits, after they had for above two hundred years made so much noise, and by their intrigues created so much contusion i.i the world, though it has been so long expected, is so remarkable an event, that it will stamp the present year as a distinguished aera. The reduction of the ecclesiastical power, is now become so general in all the Roman Catholic states, that it is no longer a particularity in anyone; and those encroachments which a sew; years ago would have made the greatest noise, and have been considered as matters ot the most alarming nature, are now past over in silence as things of course. Even the ecclesiastical princes are following the example of the lecular, and the Bishop os Liege having met with tome opposition, in his attempts to secularise a convent of monks in his own territories, has apeealed to the Emperor, as Lord Paramount upon that occasion. The event, with respect to the monks, f; not doubted,
As there seems to be a fashion in all things, even in virtues and vices, so it appears in nothing more remarkably, than in ecclesiastical affairs. While it was the mode of the times, to confer honours, power, and possessions upon the church, the was overwhelmed with them; piety degenerated into a vice; and private men ruined their families, and kings their countries, only to make her too rich and too potent. When this unna:ural power and grandeur had produced the distempers incident to them, and it was thought necessary to pluck off the adventitious plumage, the tide of fashion took the contrary course with equal rapidity, and seems now to proceed with an eagerness that threatens to leave only the skeleton behind.
The great commercial failures, which threw such a damp last year upon all business in this country, arrived at their utmost extent about the beginning of the present in Holland; and were of lu alarming a nature, and so extensiv-' in their influence, as to threaten a mortal blow to all public and private credit throughout Europe, These failures were the effect of an artificial credit, and of great speculative dealings in trade, as well as in the public funds of different countries; and though attended with an immense lols to individuals, of not less perhaps than ten millions sterling, took nothing out of the general stock, neither money nor goods being thereby lessened. They would, however, by leslening the value of those commodities, have been as pernicious in their effects, as if the loss had been real, and nothing bm the most judicious
and and timely remedies, could prevent this fatal consequence.
It is not to be wondered at, that the Republic of Holland, so long the emporium of trade, mould have pursued the wisest mealures epon this occasion; and that in a country of merchants, a number of private men, from their long acquaintance in monied matters, and knowledge of the vicissitudes attending commerce, should have acted a; manly, spirited, and generous part, for the support 6f public and private credit. But it was particularly fortunate, that without any time for pre-concert, similar measures should have been adopted by most of the other trading nations; by which means the fatal consequences that were apprehended were in a great degree prevented, and the mischief restrained from becoming so general as it would otherwise have done. Of some of these particulars we shall take notice in their proper places.
The dearth which has so long asilicted different parts of Europe, has this year been grievously felt in several countries. Germany, Bohemia, and Sweden, have presented scenes of the greatest calamity, and multitudes have perished jn t/iat miserable extremity, of
warning the plainest and most common necessaries of life. France, though in a lesser degree, has been a considerable sharer in this misfortune; and the distresses of the . people have occasioned riots and disturbances in several of the provinces. Nor has the taking off of the bounty on exportation in England, with all the other mealures that have been adopted to answer the same purpose, been sufficient . to remedy the evils, proceeding from inclement skies, and unusual seasons.
No equal period of time, since navigation and commerce have brought distant nations acquainted with the affairs of each other, has presented such a number of earthquakes, in remote and different parts of the world, as the present year. From the arctic regions to the center of Africa, and from the extreme eastern, to the western Indies, the globe was every where convulled, and nature seemed struggling in some doubtful crisis. It has, however, pleased Providence, that the mischiefs have in no degree corresponded with the apparent danger, and have been infinitely greater at seasons, when the sliocks have been few in number, and confined in their extent.
Trustless issue as the negtciaticns fir a peace at Bucharest. Nature of the ■■war on the Danube. Wife conduit of the Grand Vix.tr. iitaJe of the army u.dtr General Romunz-jiu. Ruff ans pass the river; engagement; xztiire of the country; difficulties on the march lo Silijlria. Attack on toe Turkish encampment. Retreat from Siljiria. General IVetfman killed. Rij-.ani repafs the Danube. Slate and inafiion of both armies. Latter campaign m Bulgaria. cIurks defeated in different engagements. Attempt upon Varna; the Ruffians repulsed. Siege of Silijlria; brave defence; the fiege raijed, and the Ruffians again obliged to repays the Danube. Ibffetn Bey. War in the Crimea. Ruffiin operations in the Levant; aii.ance und connection with AH Bey and the Cbiek Daber; unsuccessful attempts: eonJuil with refpeti lo the Venetians; obyervations on the Medtlen aneaii imar.
HE negotiations carried on at Bucharest for a peace, were a, fruitleis in the issue, as the congress at Foczani had been before. It seems probable, that this er:nt was equally foresfen and intended by each of the contending parties; and that each had its distinct motives, for gaining ib long 3 pause, in the midit of a war that calud forth all its attention and powers: either thereby to provide the better for its renewal, or to make use of that time in the adjustment of other dithcult arrangements, which could not be so well attended to in the din and hurry of arms
Thus the views of each of the belligerent powers were in a certain degree answered. The Porte had time to get rid of Ali Bey, to restore order and obedience, in a considerable degree, in its distracted dominions' and by the establishment of discipline to restore confidence to its troeps. On the other hand, the court of Petersburg thereby gained time to settle toe aew arrangements in Ro
land, to adjust difficult points wita the other partitioning powers, to observe the countenance borne by the rest of Europe upon so extraordinary an innovation, and to negociate loans, and recruit its armies for the renewal ot the war.
No authentic/ account of these negociations has yet been laid before the public, nor would the detail be very interesting. The great, or ostensible bar to an accommodation is laid to have been, the pretended independency infilled upon by Russia for the Crimea, at the fame time, that she also insisted upon the keeping of two strong fortified garrison; in it, which from their nature and situation, mult render the inhabitants of that peninsula totally dependent on her, and cut them oft" from their natural and hereditary friends and allies. If is also said, that the Turks had in this, as well as in the former negociation, laid it down as a fundamental principle never to be departed from, to preserve the independency os Poland, and the union of aii its parts inviolate. This
seems seems to be confirmed, by a letter which wa» written by tne Grand Vizir, during the height of the conferences at Bucharest, to the chiefs of the confederacy in Poland, in which he assures them and the Poles in general, in the name and upon the irrevocable word of his mailer, that he never would abandon them, nor enter into any peace, till their country was restored to its rights and independency, and they again enjoyed the government of a free republic, according to its ancient laws and constitution.
As this letter was publicly (hewn in Poland, and no disavowal of it was required from the Grand Vizir, nor no breach of the conferences took place in consequence of it, we may be satisfied that the Pcrte had not agreed to the dismemberment of that country, and that as the partitioning powers, had already gone such lengths towards the completion of that design, as nothing but necessity could make them recede from, it is evidejit that the peace could have been but little thought of at the congress. Jt is laid, that the navigation on the Black Sea, was another insurmountable obitacie to an accommodation, the Ruffians not only insisting on that right in its utmost extent, but also on a free liberty of trade, through the Dardanelles into the Mediterranean, in all the coasts of Greece and the Archipelago, and even in the ports of Egypt and Syria. , As these were the great obstacles to the success of the congress at Foczani, it becomes a matter of difficulty to conceive what the commissioners at Bucharest could treat upon: or upon what ground a fresh negociation could hive been, entered into, without
the removal of some of those impediments which were found insuperable in the former; and seems only to be accounted for, by supposing that an armistice being* equally necessary to both parties, was all that was looked for by either.
Previous, however, to the breaking up of the conferences at Bucharest, the Turkish commissioners proposed a prolongation of them, as well as of the armistice, to the latter end of the ensuing month of June, which being resuied by those
of Russia, and the time ., , , , , ;■ , March zzd,
limited tor the nego
ciations being now ''3 elapsed, the commissioners retired, and both sides accordingly prepared for the opening of the campaign. As the Danube was the boundary between the hostile armies, it became of course the scene of continued action; its wide extended waters, its islands, ar.d its banks, affording endless opportunities for that desultory kind of war, which consists of surprizes by night, and ambuscades by day, of alternate flight and pursuit, and in which, from the vicinity of the hostile troops, and the facility of embarkation and descent, neither rest nor security is to be obtained on either side. A bloody, ruinous kind of war, which soon devours great armies; and in which lives are lost without effect, and courage exerted without honour.
This destructive kind of war, was not, however, a matter of choice with the Russians; and the Turks were too skilfully commanded, to forego the advantages which the nature of the country and the river affarded. To them, who were at home, and abounded