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between any two of the partitioning powers, except in what immediately relates to their shares ot Poland.
Among the evils engendered by the preient age, there is no one perhaps more ratal in its tendency, or contagious in its example, than that whirh is now become fashionable in Gerriiany and the North, of reviving or letting up of obsolete and annotated claim, and titles. The dai.geious success which has already attended this conduct, will extend the evil, if not timely and effectually checked, to the loosening of all security, and the rendering all property precarious. A claim of tiiia nature, upon the city of Hamburgh, has b.tely been ilarted, and put in at Vienna, by Count Schomberg. As the title of the Hamburghers to their liberties, besides an original purchase several times acknowledged and confirmed, and a public declaration by the diet of the empire in the year I 510, by which Hamburgh was acknowledged a free and imperial city, was strengthened by a prescription of five hundred years standing, such an attempt at any other period, wouid only have afterded matter for ijlirth or ridicule. The cale is now however very different; and the liamburghers having understood that a neighbouring monarch was in treaty to purchase the Count's title, and hid probably urged him to the letting up of the claim, the fate of Dantzick struck them in all its terrors, and has given them no insufficient cause for the most grievous apprehensions.
A claim in feme degree of the fame nature, though not attended with the fame terror, h;<s been niade by the King of Prussia upon
the States of Holland. This claim consists in a debt, of above a century standing, and amoundng to more than four millions of florins, which is pretended to be owing from several os the cities belonging to the Republic, in the dutchy of Cicves, to the house of Brandenburgh. On the other side it was said, that this supposed cube, with the titles on which it was • founded, had been express) abolished by the treaty concluded in August 1698, between the Elector of Brandenburgii, Frederic the First, and their High Mightinesses. As the de.mar.d for payment was however very pieiltng, it caused sime alarm in Holland ; memorials were presented, and amwers returned: but the affair does not yet seem to be determined.
An exchange of territory has been much talked of, between the King of Prussia and the Duke of Meckienburgh Schwerin, by which the latter resigns his principality, and receives the King's part of the dutchy of Cicves in return. Tho' it may be highly eligible to a weak prince, to get out of the talons of an overgrown neighbour, who surrounds, oppresses, and overwhelms him upon every occasion, and that the value of the equivalent is not so much considered in such a situ* ation as the immediate ease and security that attend it; yet such an exchange, in the present state of affairs, would establish a most dangerous precedent in Germany, Proposals would soon be made to other weaker princes, to induce them to accept of equivalents, and such means would be taken with those who were not compilable, to render their inheritance uneasy ancj of no use to them, that in a little time they would deem it a happiness to obtain any exchange. Such measures are probably the first that will be taken, to prepare the way for a total change ot system in Germany.
Indeed that empire seems to be in as precarious a situation, as it has been at any time since its foundation. The equilibrium is entirely overthrown; and it must be only by a series of the moll extraordinary events, that it can be restored. The fate of the venal and arbitrary Polish nobility, presents a mirror to the German princes, which they could not too long nor too attentively study.
The total abolition of the Jesuits, after they had for above two hundred years made so much noise, and by their intrigues created so much contusion i.i the world, though it has been so long expected, is so remarkable an event, that it will stamp the present year as a distinguished aera. The reduction of the ecclesiastical power, is now become so general in all the Roman Catholic states, that it is no longer a particularity in anyone; and those encroachments which a sew; years ago would have made the greatest noise, and have been considered as matters ot the most alarming nature, are now past over in silence as things of course. Even the ecclesiastical princes are following the example of the lecular, and the Bishop os Liege having met with tome opposition, in his attempts to secularise a convent of monks in his own territories, has apeealed to the Emperor, as Lord Paramount upon that occasion. The event, with respect to the monks, f; not doubted,
As there seems to be a fashion in all things, even in virtues and vices, so it appears in nothing more remarkably, than in ecclesiastical affairs. While it was the mode of the times, to confer honours, power, and possessions upon the church, the was overwhelmed with them; piety degenerated into a vice; and private men ruined their families, and kings their countries, only to make her too rich and too potent. When this unna:ural power and grandeur had produced the distempers incident to them, and it was thought necessary to pluck off the adventitious plumage, the tide of fashion took the contrary course with equal rapidity, and seems now to proceed with an eagerness that threatens to leave only the skeleton behind.
The great commercial failures, which threw such a damp last year upon all business in this country, arrived at their utmost extent about the beginning of the present in Holland; and were of lu alarming a nature, and so extensiv-' in their influence, as to threaten a mortal blow to all public and private credit throughout Europe, These failures were the effect of an artificial credit, and of great speculative dealings in trade, as well as in the public funds of different countries; and though attended with an immense lols to individuals, of not less perhaps than ten millions sterling, took nothing out of the general stock, neither money nor goods being thereby lessened. They would, however, by leslening the value of those commodities, have been as pernicious in their effects, as if the loss had been real, and nothing bm the most judicious
and and timely remedies, could prevent this fatal consequence.
It is not to be wondered at, that the Republic of Holland, so long the emporium of trade, should
war-ting the plainest and most common necessaries of life. France, though in a lesser degree, has been a considerable sharer in this misfortune; and the distresses of the
have pursued the wisest measures people have occasioned riots and upon this occasion; and that in a disturbances in several of the pro
country of merchants, a number of private men, from their long acquaintance in monied matter.-, and knowledge of the vicissitudes attending commerce, should have acted & manly, spirited, and generous part, for the support df public and private credit. Cut it was particularly fortunate, that without any time for pre-concert, similar measures should have been adopted by most of the other trading nations; by which means the fatal consequences that were apprehended were in a great degree prevented, and the mischief restrained from becoming so general as it would otherwise have done. Of some of these particulars we shall take notice in their proper places.
The dearth which has so long aP.licted different parts of Europe, has this year been grievously felt in several countries. Germany, Bohemia, and Sweden, have presented scenes of the greatest calamity, and multitudes have perished jn tfrat miserable extremity, of
vinces. Nor has the taking off of the bounty on exportation in England, with all the other mealures that have been adopted to answer the same purpose, been sufficient . to remedy the evils, proceeding from inclement ikies, 'and unulual seasons.
No equal period of time, since navigation and commerce have brought distant nations acquainted with the affairs of each other, has prelented such a number of earthquakes, in remote and different parts of the world, as the present year. From the arctic regions to the center of Africa, and from the extreme eastern, to the western Indies, the globe was every where convulsed, and nature seemed struggling in some doubtful crisis. It has, however, pleased Providence, that the mischiefs have in no degree corresponded with the apparent danger, and have been infinitely greater at seasons, when the (hocks have been few in number, and confined in their extent.
fruitiest ifut ef^the negiciations for a peace at Bucharest. Nature-of the war on the Danube. Wile conduit of the Grand Fizir. State of the arms u .dtr General Romanzyw. Russians pass the rimer; engagement; nature of the country; difficulties on the inarch to Silijlria. Attack on the Turkijb encampment. Retreat from Siljlria. General IVeifman killed. Rujtans repafs the Danube. Stale and i/iariien of both armies. Latter campaign in Bulgaria. 'Turks defeated in dijjcrent engagements. Attempt upo.i farna; the Ruffians repulsed. Siege of Silijlria; brave defence; the fuge raijed, aud the RuJ/iuns again obliged to repajs the Danube. Hoffeim Bey. War in the Crimea. RnJJiin operations in the Levant; alliance and connexion •with AH Bty and the Chiek Daber; unsuccessful attempts: conJud nvith rijpetl to the Venetians; objecvations on the Me ditcrraucan ijour.
THE negociations carried on a^ Bucbarett for a peace, were as f. uitiets in the issue, as the congress at Foczani had been before. It seems probable, that this erent was equally foreseen and intended by each os the contending p.irties ; and that each had its distinct motives, for gaining lo long a paule, in the midit of a war thac called forth all its attention and powers: either thereby to provide the better for its renewal, or to make use of that time in the adjustment os other difhcult arrangements, which could not be so well attended to in the din and hurry of arms
Thus the views of each of the belligerent powers were in a certain degite answered. The Porte had time to get rid of Ali Bey, to restore order and obedience, jn a considerable degree, in its distracted dominions^ and by the eltabliihment of discipline to restore confidence to its t roc ps. On the other hand, the court of Petersburg thereby gained lime to fettle toe new arrangements in Po
land, to adjust difficult points wita the other partitioning powers, to observe the countenance borne by the rest of Europe upon so extraordinary an innovation, and to negociate loans, and recruit its armies for the renewal of the war.
No authentic/ account of these negociations has yet been laid before the public, nor would the detail be very interesting. The great, or ostensible bar to an accommodation is laid to have been, the pretended independency infilled upon by Russia for the Crimea, at the fame time, that she also insisted upon the keeping of two stron^ fortified garrison;; in it, which from their nature and situation, mult render the inhabitants of that peninsula totally dependent on her, and cut them off from their natural and hereditary friends and allies. If is also laid, that the Turks had in this, as well as in the former negociation, laid it down as a fundamental principle never to be departed from, to preserve the inde. pendency os Poland, and the union oi al} its parts jnviolate. This seems to be confirmed, by a letter which was written by tne Grand Vizir, during the height of the conferences at Bucharelt, to the chiefs of tiie confederacy in Poland, in which he assures them and the Poles in general, in the name and upon the irrevocable word of his mailer, that he never would abandon them, nor enter into any peace, till their country was restored to its rights and independency, and they again enjoyed the government of a tree republic, according to its ancient laws and constitution.
As this letter was publicly (hewn in Poland, and no disavowal of it was required from the Grand Vizir, nor no breach of the conferences took place in consequence of it, we may be satisfied that the Pcrte had uot agreed to the dismemberment of that country, and that as the partitioning powers, had already gone such lengths towards the completion of that design, as nothing but necessity could make them recede from, it is evidejit that the peace could have been but little thought of at the congress, it is laid, that the navigation on the Slack Sea, was another insurmountable obitacie to an accommodation, the Ruffians not only infilling on that right in its utmost extent, but allo on a free liberty of trade, through the Dardanelles into the Mediterranean, in all the coasts of Greece and the Archipelago, and even in the ports of Egypt and Syria. , As these were the great obstacles to the success of the congress at Foczani, it becomes a matter of difficulty to conceive what the commissioners at Bucharest could treat upon: or upon what ground a fresh negociation could hive been, entered into, without
the removal of some of those impediments which were found insuperable in the former; and seems only to be accounted for, by supposing that an armistice being equally necessary to both parties, was all that was looked for by either.
Previous, however, to the breaking up of the conferences at Bucharest, the Turkish commissioners proposed a prolongation of them, as well as of the armistice, to the latter end of the ensuing month of June, which being resuied by those
of Russia, and the time ., , , ,. . , J , March zzd,
limned tor the nego
. • ° 1773.
ciations being now ''J
elapsed, the commissioners retired, and both sides accordingly prepared for the opening of the campaign. As the Danube was the boundary between the hostile armies, it became of course the scene of continued action; its wide extended waters, its islands, ar.d its banks, affording endless opportunities for that desultory kind of war, which consuls of surprizes by night, and ambuscades by day, of alternate flight and pursuit, and in which, from the vicinity of the hostile troops, and the facility of embarkation and descent, neither rest nor security is to be obtained en either fide. A bloody, ruinous kind of war, which soon devours great armies; and in which lives are lost without effect, and courage exerted without honour.
This destructive kind of war, was not, however, a matter of choice with the Russians; and the Turks were too skilfully commanded, to forego the advantages which the nature of the country and the river afforded. To them, who were at home, and abounded