Britain and France at the Birth of America: The European Powers and the Peace Negotiations of 1782-1783
University of Exeter Press, 2001 - 272 Seiten
This is the first comprehensive study of the peace negotiations which ended the American War of Independence. It challenges traditional views and uses a wide range of sources to provide a detailed analysis of the treaties signed between Britain and France, Spain, the Netherlands, and the United States. It shows that American independence, rather than being the important issue of the negotiations, was consistently subordinated to European balance of power considerations. The book demonstrates the importance of personality and popular prejudice in determining foreign policy, and new insights are offered into the personalities and objectives of the leading political figures of the time, including George III, Louis XVI, Benjamin Franklin, Lords Shelburne, Grantham and North, Charles James Fox, the comte de Vergennes, John Jay, John Adams, Catherine the Great and Frederick the Great. The result is a significant new study of eighteenth-century diplomatic and political history which overturns previously established views.
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The Approach of Peace
The Birth of America
Shelburne Vergennes and the European Settlement
The Domestic Political Context
Fox and the 1783 Negotiations
11 December 13 September Adams agreed alliance allies ambassador American independence Anglo-American Anglo-French April Aranda argued Armed Neutrality August Austrian believed Bourbon Britain Britain and France British Foreign Policy Cabinet Castries Catherine cede claims colonies commercial comte de Vergennes concessions Crimea d'Adhemar December declared definitive treaties Dominica Doniol Dutch envoys European favour February Fitzherbert to Grantham Floridablanca Fox's France France's Franklin French George George III Gibraltar Grafton Grantham to Fitzherbert Grenville Harlow Hartley Histoire ibid India January Joseph July June king Lord Lord Shelburne Louis XVI Maurepas mediation memoir military minister ministry Minorca Morris Negapatam Netherlands Newfoundland fishery North November October offer Oswald paix Paris Parliament Parliamentary History peace negotiations peace terms Peacemakers preliminaries Private rapprochement Rayneval Conf Rayneval to Vergennes Rayneval's Rockingham Russia September 1782 Shelburne's Spain Spanish St Eustatius Stormont trade treaty of Utrecht Vergennes to Montmorin Vergennes to Rayneval Vergennes's