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quale ferunt Grai Pheneum prope Cylleneum 110 siccare emulsa pingue palude solum,

quod quondam caesis montis fodisse medullis

audit falsiparens Amphitryoniades,
tempore quo certa Stymphalia monstra sagitta

perculit imperio deterioris eri,
115 pluribus ut caeli tereretur ianua divis,

Hebe nec longa virginitate foret.
sed tuus altus amor barathro fuit altior illo,

qui durum domitam ferre iugum docuit.

118. durum domitam Lachmann tuum domitum VM tantum indomitam Statius tunc indomitam Conr. de Allio tamen indomitam Heyse tum te indomitam Riese actutum domitum Ellis te tum domitam Macnaghten tum te domitam Friedrich.

109. Pheneum : an Arcadian town near the base of Mt. Cyllene, in a plain which was sometimes so inundated as to become a troublesome lake.

110. pingue : "heavy,' because saturated and enriched by the abundant moisture.

111. quod refers to barathrum.

112. audit = dicitur; cf. Hor Ep. 1, 16, 17: tu recte vivis, si curas esse quod audis. The con struction is like the similar use of clueo and ákovw, but this is the only case extant where audio is so used with an infinitive. — falsiparens Amphitryoniades : Hera cles, really the son of Juppiter, was reputed to be the son of Amphitruo.

113. Several other feats of Heracles belonging to this time and region are by nature closely

allied to this story of the draining of the plain of Pheneos : the tale of the Stymphalian birds, also that of the Hydra, the Erymanthian boar, and the stables of Augeas. Cf. H. & T. S$ 138-140.

114. deterioris eri : Eurystheus.

115. pluribus . . . divis : their number being increased by the addition of Heracles. The action of the verb being involuntary (and even unconscious) rather than voluntary, divis is best considered an instrumental abl. ; a less convincing instance is Hor. Sat. 1, 6, 116: cena ministratur pueris tribus.

116. Hebe: the bride of the deified Heracles. Her Roman name was Iuventas.

117. Even this comparison does not duly represent the intensity of Laodamia's affection.

118. durum: i.e. for maidenly

I 20

nam nec tam carum confecto aetate parenti

una caput seri nata nepotis alit, qui, cum divitiis vix tandem inventus avitis

nomen testatas intulit in tabulas, inpia derisi gentilis gaudia tollens

suscitat a cano volturium capiti : 125 nec tantum niveo gavisa est ulla columbo

conpar, quae multo dicitur inprobius

modesty to assume. This idea, which is emphasized to prove the truth of amor ... altior, appears prominently in both of the epithalamia of Catullus ; cf. 61, 81, 83, 95; 62, 20-24; also Hor. Car. 3, 9, 17: redit Venus, diductosque iugo cogit aeneo. — iugum : cf. 61, 45: coniugator amoris.

119-124. A second parallel to the intensity of Laodamia's love is found in that of an old man for his long-hoped-for grandson. – carum ... caput ... alit = carum est caput seri nepotis quod nata alit.

120. caput: "life.' Cf. Prop. 4, 11, 10, n. — seri: and therefore long-expected.

121. qui refers to ne potis. — inventus: the heir so long awaited, when at length he arrives, is said to have been found,' as if the object of careful search.

122. testatas ... tabulas : the last will and testament of the grandfather. The participle is best regarded as from the active form of the verb, and so used here in the passive sense, i.e. the will is duly signed and witnessed.

123. inpia : because pietas especially implies loyalty to the highest interests and wishes of the older members of one's family, in the broad or narrow sense of the word family; and here a more distant relative had selfishly and greedily hoped for disappointment of the grandsire's fondest hopes. - derisi gentilis : now in turn mocked by the rotation of Fortune's wheel. The Laws of the XII Tables provided : si paterfamilias intestato moritur, familia

pecuniaque eius agnatum gentiliumque esto (Cic. De Inv. 2,50).

124. volturium: the gentilis. Cf. Sen. Ep. 95, 43: amico aegro aliquis adsidet; probamus: at hoc si hereditatis causa facit, voltur est, cadaver exspectat; Plaut. Trin. 1o1: sunt alii qui te volturium vocant. - capiti: an abl. form unparalleled in the classical period, and exceedingly rare even in the postclassical period. Cf. Neue, Vol. 1, p. 366.

125-128. A third comparison is found in the proverbial fondness of a dove for its mate.

126. conpar: “mate.'

oscula mordenti semper decerpere rostro

quam quae praecipue multivola est mulier :

sed tu horum magnos vicisti sola furores, 130 ut semel es flavo conciliata viro.

aut nihil aut paullo cui tum concedere digna

lux mea se nostrum contulit in gremium, quam circumcursans hinc illinc saepe Cupido

fulgebat crocina candidus in tunica.
135 quae tamen etsi uno non est contenta Catullo,

rara verecundae furta feremus erae,
ne nimium simus stultorum more molesti.

saepe etiam Iuno, maxima caelicolum,

127. mordenti: cf. 2, 2-4; cui te, mea lux, veniat mea litore primum digitum ad petenti et navis. acris solet incitare morsus; Plaut. 133. Lesbia seems a very Venus Men. 195.

to her enthralled lover ; cf. vv. 70128. multivola : anat dey. in 72; Hor. Car. 1, 2, 33: Erycina classical Latin. The multa form- ...quam ... circum volat et ing the first part of the compound Cupido. refers to oscula.

134. crocina : the same color as 129. tu: Laodamia. — furores: the bridal veil; so Hymen is repcf. 2, 8: uti gravis acquiescat resented in this color in 61, 8: ardor ; Verg. Aen. 4, 101: ardet flammeum cape, etc. amans Dido traxitque per ossa 135. Catullus has heard enough

furorem; Prop. 1, 13, 20: tan- of Lesbia's frailties to disturb his tus erat demens inter utrosque peace of mind; but, in no mood furor.

yet to cast her off, would excuse 130. flavo: of a typical ancient her as even in this respect also hero.

like the immortals. 131. Reverting to the com 136. verecundae: that Lesbia parison in vv. 70-74, Catullus did not reveal her amours to the takes up again the theme of world is considered an extenuating Lesbia's love and entrancing love. circumstance. — furta : see Lex. liness.

Cf. v. 145; Prov. 9, 17: “ Stolen 132. lux mea: cf. v. 160; waters are sweet." - erae: used Tib. 4, 3, 15: tum placeant also by Ovid in Her. 9, 78, for silvae, si, lux mea, tecum ar- the more usual domina. guar; Prop. 2, 14, 29 : nunc ad 137. molesti: i.e. jealous.

coniugis in culpa flagrantem concoquit iram, 140 noscens omnivoli plurima furta Iovis.

atqui nec divis homines conponier aequumst :

ingratum tremuli tolle parentis onus.
nec tamen illa mihi dextra deducta paterna

fragrantem Assyrio venit odore domum, 145 sed furtiva dedit mira munuscula nocte,

ipsius ex ipso dempta viri gremio.
quare illud satis est, si nobis is datur unis

139. concoquit Lachmann cotidiana O quotidiana GM contudit Hertzberg concipit Baehrens continet Santen. 140. furta w facta VM. 141. atqui w atque VM at quia D. There is no gap in the Mss. after this verse.

139. in: 'in cases of.' - con 143. nec tamen: 'And, after all, coquit: cf. the slang phrase, “ sim- she was not,' etc. Cf. Prop. 3, 16, mer down."

II; Munro on Lucr. 5, 1177. — 140. omnivoli: another ÅTTA deducta: in the wedding procesdey. of the same pattern as multi- sion. - paterna: in a figurative vola (v. 128); but the first part sense only, referring to the fact of the compound in this instance that the father gave away the refers to persons (puellas ); and bride in manus of the bridean important part of classical my- groom. thology deals with their history. 145. Cf. v. 136, n. — dedit :

141. conponier : the three other Lesbia gave the voluntary offering instances of the archaic infin. end- of passionate affection, as coning in Catullus are all in No. 61 trasted with the reluctance of the (vv. 42, 6s, 68).

bride whose father had arranged a 142. "Have done with the se- marriage, perhaps without consultnile vexatiousness of over-jealousy' ing her wishes. The moral for (Ellis). As men and gods are Catullus seems to be, “ You incomparable, a comedy scene is shouldn't look a gift horse in the suggested as a parallel, the irritable mouth," but be judiciously blind old man enraged at the amorous to some failings. escapades of a son. The thought 147. is: the antecedent diem essentially repeats that of v. 137, is incorporated in the following and is addressed to himself, like relative clause. — unis: 'only'; Prop. 2, 5, 14: subtrahe colla ingo, Catullus is most favored, of all the without any expressed vocative.. lovers of Lesbia.

ROM. EL. POETS — 7 97

quem lapide illa diem candidiore notet. hoc tibi quod potui confectum carmine munus 150 pro multis, Alli, redditur officiis,

ne vestrum scabra tangat robigine nomen

haec atque illa dies atque alia atque alia.
huc addent divi quam plurima, quae Themis olim

antiquis solita est munera ferre piis. 155 sitis felices et tu simul et tua vita,

et domus ipsa in qua lusimus, et domina, fet qui principio nobis terram dedit aufert,

a quo sunt primo omnia nata bona,

148. notet D notat V. 150. Alli Scaliger aliis VM alys R Manli w. 157. terram VRM teneram Statius te et eram Munro. aufert VRM Anser Hleyse Afer Munro audens Friedrich. 158. bona w bono VM.

148. lapide ... diem candidiore: corresponding to our phrase,

a red-letter day.' The custom was said to be a Cretan one, to count prosperous days by white pebbles. Cf. 107, 6; Plin. Ep. 6, II, 3:0 diem... laetum notandumque mihi candidissimo calculo! Hor. Car. I, 36, JO: Cressa ne careat pulchra dies nota ; Pers. 2, 1: diem numera meliore la pillo.

149. The panegyric now completed, Catullus turns in personal address to his friend with the final words of goodwill ; cf. Intr. to the poem.

151. vestrum : i.e. the family wame. — scabra ... robigine : cf. Latimer, Alisc.: "a new canker to rust and corrupt the old truth.”

152. The fiight of time ; cf. 64, 16.

153. huc: i.e. to this munus which I have offered. - Themis :

the divinity that represented “law." Her attributes were the horn of plenty, symbolizing blessing, and the balance, indicating exact justice.

155. vita = domina, but whether a parallel to Lesbia or a lawful wife it is impossible to determine.

156. domus : cf. v. 68. — domina is the same person as dominam in v. 68. — sit felix is to be supplied several times in vv. 156– 157, and in v. 160.

157–158. These verses are still an unsolved puzzle for commentators. Perhaps they refer to a third person who assisted in the merry plot, terram being taken in the sense of a basis of undertaking, a footing from which to carry on the intrigue, a terra firma of refuge after being tossed on the waves of doubt, and omnia refer

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