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60

65

Graia Canopiis incola litoribus.

hic iuveni Ismario ne solum in lumine caeli

ex Ariadneis aurea temporibus

fixa corona foret, sed nos quoque fulgeremus

devotae flavi verticis exuviae,

uvidulam a fletu cedentem ad templa deum me
sidus in antiquis diva novum posuit:
virginis et saevi contingens namque leonis

59. hic iuveni Ismario Ellis hi dii ven ibi vario V hi dij venibi (or ven ibi) vario R arduei ibi Haupt invida enim Vahlen numen ibi Ritschl hic liquidi Friedrich. lumine or limine mumine R numine V.

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70

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lumina, Callisto iuncta Lycaoniae,

vertor in occasum, tardum dux ante Booten,
qui vix sero alto mergitur Oceano.

sed quamquam me nocte premunt vestigia divum,
lux autem canae Tethyi restituit :
pace tua fari hic liceat, Rhamnusia virgo:
namque ego non ullo vera timore tegam,
nec si me infestis discerpent sidera dictis,

Draeger, 2, p. 162; Tib. 1, 7, 12, n. - leonis: Zeus was responsible for the metamorphosis of the famous Nemean lion, slain by Hercules, into the constellation Leo, the fifth sign of the zodiac.

66. Callisto: dat.; but one of several irregular forms in the decl. of this word. Her history is variously told, the adj. Lycaoniae here having patronymic force. As attendant of Artemis in Arcadia she became by Zeus mother of Arcas, was changed into a bear, and later, either after death, or to escape death, into a constellation, this being one of the many identifications explanatory of the origin of Ursa Major. iuncta: next to.' 67. dux ante a touch of pride that she should show the way to the oxen-driver,' or charioteer, Boötes. Booten the constellated Arcas, son of Callisto; or Lycaon; or Icarius.

68. vix sero . . . mergitur: a characteristic noticed by Homer, Od. 5, 272 : ὀψὲ δύοντα βοώτην, and explained by Sir G. C. Lewis (Astronomy of the Ancients, p. 59) on the ground that its setting,

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"inasmuch as the constellation is in a perpendicular position, occupies some time, whereas his rising is rapid, being effected in a horizontal position."

69. quamquam belongs to restituit as well as to premunt; the principal clause begins at v. 75. — premunt vestigia divum: cf. Arat. 359 : θεῶν ὑπὸ ποσσὶ φορεῖται ; Manil. (1, 803) adopts this phrase.

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70. Tethyi to whom, rather than to her husband Oceanus (cf. v. 68), the maidenly modesty of the Coma prefers to represent herself as surrendered for the passage by day (lux) back around the earth to her next rising. Cf. Tib. 2, 5, 59-60.

71-74. Parenthetical.

71. Rhamnusia virgo: Nemesis, so called from her temple at Rhamnus in Attica, whose province it was to punish presumptuous words. Cf. 68, 77; 50, 20: ne poenas Nemesis reposcat a te.

73. nec: sc. tegam. Only if tum, or some other emphatic word, were expressed, should we think necne. . . quidem. This verse is an emphatic reiteration of the

75

80

condita quin veri pectoris evoluam :

non his tam laetor rebus, quam me afore semper,

afore me a dominae vertice discrucior,

quicum ego, dum virgo quondam fuit omnibus expers unguentis, una milia multa bibi.

nunc, vos optato quom iunxit lumine taeda,
non prius unanimis corpora coniugibus
tradite nudantes reiecta veste papillas,

quam iucunda mihi munera libet onyx,

77. expers V expersa Heinsius expressa Statius ex pars Munro. guentis V unguenti si Lachmann unguenti surii Auratus. quem V quas w. 80. prius post G.

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previous one. si etiamsi. discerpent: probably the word is more literal than figurative in the mind of the poet; but as a metaphor it must be regarded as a åπaέ λeyóμevov. Cf. Cic. Ad Att. 2, 19,3 qua dominus qua advocati sibilis conscissi. The tense signifies the probability of the fate. dictis instr. :

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74. quin indicates that tegam was used as a verb of • hindering.' - evoluam; cf. Intr. § 43.

75. his ... rebus: i.e. the great honors recently described.

76. afore me emphatic and artistic inversion, forming a chiasmus with the expression in v. 75.

77. expers in the active sense, and with concessive force, 'though caring little for.' Cf. Plaut. Amph. 713: eo more expertem te; Ovid, Met. 1, 479; Hor. Car. 3, 1I, II. Cf. also K. P. H. in BPW., Vol. 30, Sp. 285.

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78. un

79. quom Haupt 82. quam V quin Lachmann.

78. una : to be taken with quicum.

81

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79. nunc = vov de ut nunc est. Blessings brighten as they take their flight,” and under the changed conditions, the lock eagerly demands in its translated state offerings of the choicest perfumes from newly wedded brides, who by the act will remind her of her lost home and her beloved mistress.-lumine die, as in v. 90. 80. unanimis: in mutual affection.'

82. onyx: an ointment vase made of onyx. They were even more common, especially in Egypt, of alabaster (alabastron). For typical shapes v. Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, p. cxxv, ill. 77 and 78. Cf. Hor. Car. 4, 12, 17 nardi parvus onyx eliciat cadum; Prop. 2, 13, 30; St. Mark 14, 3: "alabaster box (R.V. "cruse ") of ointment."

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vester onyx, casto petitis quae iura cubili.
sed quae se inpuro dedit adulterio,

illius ah mala dona levis bibat inrita pulvis:

namque ego ab indignis praemia nulla peto.
sed magis, o nuptae, semper concordia vestras,
semper amor sedes incolat adsiduus.
tu vero, regina, tuens cum sidera divam
placabis festis luminibus Venerem,
unguinis expertem non siris esse tuam me,
sed potius largis adfice muneribus.
sidera corruerint utinam! coma regia fiam:
proximus hydrochoi fulgeret Oarion.

91. unguinis Bentley sanguinis V. non siris Lachmann ne siveris Scaliger non vestris V. tuam Avantius tuum V.

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68

Quod mihi fortuna casuque oppressus acerbo conscriptum hoc lacrimis mittis epistolium,

68. Title Ad Mallium RM Ad Mallium, Malium, Manlium w.

68

Many editors have believed this elegy made up of two or more separate poems, and it appears accordingly in various editions as 68a(vv. 1-40), 68" (41-160), or 68' (41–148), and 68°(149-160). The arguments for such mutilation are shrewdly stated by Riese in his annotated edition of 1884, and by Merrill (1893). For the defense of the poem's unity, however, see Magnus, in Bursian's JB., Vol. 87 (1887), pp. 151 sqq., and Vol. 126 (1906), pp. 139 sqq., and Jahrbücher f. Phil. u. Päd., Vol. 3 (1875), pp. 849 sqq.; Kiessling, Analecta Catulliana (Greifswald Program, 1877); Harnecker, Das 68 Gedicht des Catullus (Friedeberg Program, 1881); Friedrich (who, however, puts the worst construction upon it); Schanz, and his bibliography; etc. The difficulties of interpretation do not seem to be removed, but rather enhanced, by the proposed division; and the elegy is best considered as one, a carefully evolved and acutely involved product of the poet's Alexandrian period.

The hopeless confusion, in the Mss., of the name of the person

to whom the elegy is addressed may be most simply explained by adopting Lachmann's conjecture that he was M'. Allius. It is then very easy to see how the title Ad Mallium, and the various readings in vv. 11, 30, 41, 66, arose. For an acute discussion of the origin of these variants, cf. Friedrich, pp. 44 sqq. No editor has ventured to follow the Mss. implicitly in this matter. In the main part of the elegy (vv. 41-148) Allius is spoken of in the third person as the subject of the eulogy which is pronounced upon him for his friendly services; in the introduction (vv. 1–40) it is not unnatural, but in harmony with the direct (second personal) address of the epistolary style employed, that the more familiar praenomen Manius should be used. But in v. 150 of the epilogistic close (vv. 148-160) the same name would naturally be employed as that to which reference is made in the same sentence by the word nomen (v. 151).

From the passage beginning at v. 27 it is seen that Catullus was at Verona, while Allius was doubtless at Rome, as was also Lesbia. It can scarcely be doubted that the poet expected, nay, probably in

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