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Graia Canopiis incola litoribus.
ex Ariadneis aurea temporibus
devotae flavi verticis exuviae,
sidus in antiquis diva novum posuit :
59. hic iuveni Ismario Ellis hi dij ven ibi vario V hi dij venibi (or ven ibi) vario R arduei ibi Haupt invida enim Vahlen numen ibi Ritschl hic liquidi Friedrich. lumine or limine w mumine R numine V.
where the famulus of Cybele is the lion.
58. Graia: referring to the Greek ancestry of Arsinoë as compared to her ultimate home in Egypt (Canopiis). This Greek woman took precedence of all the members of the royal house of Egypt in becoming the first of the Ptolemies to be deified. The Alexandrian obscurity of this whole passage may easily have been enhanced by the poet's ignorance of Egyptian conditions.
59. hic : temporal. — iuveni Is. mario: Bacchus, whose vine was abundant on Ismarus; cf. Verg. Georg. 2, 37 : iuvat Ismara Baccho conserere.
60. ex Ariadneis . . . corona: at the marriage of Ariadne to Bacchus, after her desertion by Theseus, Venus gave her as a bridal gift a magnificent crown of gold and precious gems (made by Vulcan). Its metamorphosis into a constellation (*the northern
crown') at the translation of Ariadne to heaven is a theme of frequent recurrence in the poets : Ovid, Fast. 3, 459-516; 5, 345: Baccho placuisse coronam ex Ariadneo sidere nosse potes; Met. 8, 177-182; Manil. 5, 21: Ariadneae caelestia dona coronae ; Prop. 3, 17, 7: testatur in astris lyncibus ad caelum vecta Ariadna tuis.
62. flavi: the Homeric ideal ; so Ariadne's hair is described by the same epithet in 64, 63: flavo ... vertice.
63. uvidulam: a characteristic Catullus diminutive. – fletu: due to its compulsory condition as exuviae. — templa : cf. Enn. Ann. I, 49 (Vahlen): ad caeli caerula templa; Lucr. I, 1014: nec mare nec tellus neque caeli lucida templa.
65. virginis : the constellation Virgo was variously identified with Dike-Astraea, Isis, Tyche, Erigone, etc. Cf. Class. Dict. — namque: on the position cf.
lumina, Callisto iuncta Lycaoniae, vertor in occasum, tardum dux ante Booten,
qui vix sero alto mergitur Oceano. sed quamquam me nocte premunt vestigia divum,
lux autem canae Tethyi restituit : pace tua fari hic liceat, Rhamnusia virgo :
namque ego non ullo vera timore tegam, nec si me infestis discerpent sidera dictis,
Draeger, 2, p. 162; Tib. 1, 7, 12, n. - leonis : Zeus was responsible for the metamorphosis of the famous Nemean lion, slain by Hercules, into the constellation Leo, the fifth sign of the zodiac.
66. Callisto : dat. ; but one of several irregular forms in the decl. of this word. Her history is variously told, the adj. Lycaoniae here having patronymic force. As attendant of Artemis in Arcadia she became by Zeus mother of Arcas, was changed into a bear, and later, either after death, or to escape death, into a constellation, this being one of the many identifica tions explanatory of the origin of Ursa Major. - iuncta : “next to.
67. dux ante : a touch of pride that she should show the way to the ‘oxen-driver,' or charioteer, Boötes. — Booten : the constellated Arcas, son of Callisto ; or Lycaon; or Icarius.
68. vix sero ... mergitur: a characteristic noticed by Homer, Od. 5, 272 : óvre dúovta Bootnu, and explained by Sir G. C. Lewis (Astronomy of the Ancients, p. 59) on the ground that its setting
“inasmuch as the constellation is in a perpendicular position, occupies some time, whereas his rising is rapid, being effected in a horizontal position."
69. quamquam belongs to restituit as well as to premunt; the principal clause begins at v. 75.premunt vestigia divum : cf. Arat. 359 : Dewv ÚTÒ moooi popeitai ; Manil. (1, 803) adopts this phrase.
7 0. Tethyi : to whom, rather than to her husband Oceanus (cf. v. 68), the maidenly modesty of the Coma prefers to represent herself as surrendered for the passage by day (lux) back around the earth to her next rising. Cf. Tib. 2, 5, 59-60.
71. Rhamnusia virgo : Nemesis, so called from her temple at Rhamnus in Attica, whose province it was to punish presumptuous words. Cf. 68, 77 ; 50, 20: ne poenas Nemesis reposcat a te.
73. nec: sc. tegam. Only if tum, or some other emphatic word, were expressed, should we think nec = ne . . . quudem. This verse is an emphatic reiteration of the
condita quin veri pectoris evoluam :
afore me a dominae vertice discrucior,
unguentis, una milia multa bibi.
non prius unanimis corpora coniugibus
quam iucunda mihi munera libet onyx,
77. expers V expersa Heinsius expressa Statius ex pars Munro. 78. unguentis V unguenti si Lachmann unguenti surii Auratus. 79. quom Haupt quem V quas w. 80. prius w post G. 82. quam V quin Lachmann.
previous one. — si = etiamsi.
78. una : to be taken with
more literal than figurative in the 79. nunc = vû dé = ut nunc est. mind of the poet; but as a meta- - “ Blessings brighten as they phor it must be regarded as a ära take their tight," and under the deyouevov. Cf. Cic. dd it. 2, changed conditions, the lock ea19, 3 : qua dominus qua advocati gerly demands in its translated sibilis conscissi. The tense signi- state offerings of the choicest perfies the probability of the fate. — fumes from newly wedded brides, dictis : instr.
who by the act will remind her of 74. quin indicates that tegam her lost home and her beloved was used as a verb of hindering.' mistress.- lumine=die, as in v. 90.
80. unanimis : 'in mutual affec75. his ... rebus : i.e. the tion.' great honors recently described. 82. onyx: an ointment vase
76. afore me : emphatic and made of onyx. They were even artistic inversion, forming a chias- more common, especially in Egypt, mus with the expression in v. 75 of alabaster (alabastron). For
77. expers : in the active sense, typical shapes v. Dennis, Cities and with concessive force, though and Cemeteries of Etruria, p. cxxv, caring little for.' Cf. Plaut. Amph. ill. 77 and 78. Cf. Hor. Car.4, 12, 713 : eo more expertem te ; Ovid, 17 : nardi parvus Onyx eliciat Met. 1, 479; Hor. Car. 3, 11, II. cadum; Prop. 2, 13, 30; St. Mark Cf. also K. P. H. in BPII, Vol. 14, 3: “ alabaster box (R.V. 30, Sp. 285.
* cruse ") of ointment.” ROM. EL. POETS — 6 81
vester onyx, casto petitis quae iura cubili.
sed quae se inpuro dedit adulterio,
namque ego ab indignis praemia nulla peto.
semper amor sedes incolat adsiduus. tu vero, regina, tuens cum sidera divam
placabis festis luminibus Venerem,
sed potius largis adfice muneribus.
proximus hydrochoi fulgeret Oarion.
91. unguinis Bentley sanguinis V. non siris Lachmann ne siveris Scaliger non vestris V. tuam Avantius tuum V.
83. vester : emphatic, ionly yours, and containing the implied antecedent of quae. — iura : i.e. those of a iustum matrimonium.
87. sed magis : ‘but rather,' i.e. than experience in any unholy union the shame and disappointments just referred to. For this essentially adversative use of magis cf. 68, 30. Cf. also v. 92.
91. unguinis = unguenti, a comparatively rare equivalent. — expertem : here in the passive sense, • lacking in.'— non : cf. v. 80 ; Ovid, A. A. 1, 389: aut non temp. taris aut perfice. — siris = siveris.
- tuam : cf. Hor. Car. 1, 25, 7 : me tuo longas pereunte noctes, Lydia, dormis.
93. Throwing off the grand tone of the previous verses, the lock bursts forth once more at the close with an ejaculation of its real feelings.
94. In the illogical petulance of youth it forgets that it has just wished the destruction of the whole stellar system, and gayly imagines a complete confusion of the established order in the sky. - proximus : though the distance between the two constellations Aquarius and Orion is now at least 90°. — hydrochoi : dat. — Oarion : the Greek form 'Naplov was not only the sign of the doctus
poeta, but was preferred here, as undoubtedly in the original, for metrical reasons.
Quod mihi fortuna casuque oppressus acerbo
conscriptum hoc lacrimis mittis epistolium,
to whom the elegy is addressed
may be most simply explained by Many editors have believed this adopting Lachmann's conjecture elegy made up of two or more sep- that he was M'. Allius. It is then arate poems, and it appears accord- very easy to see how the title Ad ingly in various editions as 68a (vv. Mallium, and the various readings 1-40), 68(41-160), or 68" (41-148), in vv. II, 30, 41, 66, arose. For and 68°(149-160). The arguments an acute discussion of the origin for such mutilation are shrewdly of these variants, cf. Friedrich, stated by Riese in his annotated pp. 44 sqq. No editor has venedition of 1884, and by Merrill tured to follow the Mss. implicitly (1893). For the defense of the in this matter. In the main part poem's unity, however, see Magnus, of the elegy (vv. 41-148) Allius is in Bursian's JB., Vol. 87 (1887), spoken of in the third person as pp. 151 sqq., and Vol. 126 (1906), the subject of the eulogy which is pp. 139 sqq., and Jahrbiicher f. pronounced upon him for his Phil. u. Päd., Vol. 3 (1875), pp. friendly services ; in the introduc849 sqq. ; Kiessling, Analecta tion (vv. 1-40) it is not unnatural, Catulliana (Greifswald Program, but in harmony with the direct 1877); Harnecker, Das 68 Gedicht (second personal) address of the des Catullus (Friedeberg Program, epistolary style employed, that the 1881); Friedrich (who, however, more familiar praenomen Manius puts the worst construction upon should be used. But in v. 150 of it); Schanz, and his bibliography; the epilogistic close (vv. 148-160) etc. The difficulties of interpreta- the same name would naturally be tion do not seem to be removed, employed as that to which referbut rather enhanced, by the pro- ence is made in the same sentence posed division ; and the elegy is by the word nomen (v. 151). best considered as one, a carefully From the passage beginning at evolved and acutely involved v. 27 it is seen that Catullus was product of the poet's Alexandrian at Verona, while Allius was doubtperiod.
less at Rome, as was also Lesbia. The hopeless confusion, in the It can scarcely be doubted that the Mss., of the name of the person poet expected, nay, probably in