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nudus at inferna, stulte, vehere rate. victor cum victis pariter miscebitur umbris :

consule cum Mario, capte Iugurtha, sedes.
Lydus Dulichio non distat Croesus ab Iro.

optima mors, parca quae venit acta die.
me iuvat in prima coluisse Helicona iuventa,

musarumque choris in plicuisse manus :
me iuvat et multo mentem vincire Lyaeo

et caput in verna semper habere rosa.
atque ubi iam Venerem gravis interceperit aetas,

sparserit et nigras alba senecta comas,
tum mihi naturae libeat perdiscere mores,



14. at inferna . . . rate Schrader ad infernas ... rates O ab ... rate w ad infernos. rate Palmer, 18. parca 0 Parcae Lachmann carpta Baehrens. 21. iuvat DV iuvet NFL. 24. sparserit et N sparserit DV sparsit et FL. et nigras w integras DV et integras NFL.


14. nudus . . . stulte:

18. parca : this word sums up ous parallels from Holy Scripture the thought of the elegy thus far: will occur to the reader, e.g. Job the climax of the best life is that I, 21: 66 naked shall I return which comes in the natural course thither"; Luke 12, 20: “Thou of human events to the man of fool, . . . then whose shall those humble means. things be, which thou hast pro- 19. Cf. 4, 1, 131 sqq. — Helivided ?" Lucian, Dial. Mort. 10. cona: cf. 3, 3, 1.

16. Iugurtha and his captor, 20. Cf. 3, 3, 37. Marius, illustrate victis and victor 21. Cf. 2, 10,7.-vincire Lyaeo :

literallyó to bind with the loosener' 17. Dulichio . . . Iro: the fa- is an oxymoron indicating that Promous beggar in the Odyssey (18 pertius realizes the real nature of init.), a type of poverty, as the the much-vaunted freedom that is more famous Croesus is a type of given by wine. Cf. Verg. Georg. wealth. For the thought, cf. Hor. 2, 94: temptatura pedes olim vincCar. 2, 14, 9: unda scilicet om- turaque linguam. nibus enaviganda, sive reges

25. mores =

leges; cf. Verg: sive inopes erimus coloni ; 1, 4, Aen. I, 264: moresque viris et 13; 2, 18, 32.

moenia ponet.

of v. 15.


quis deus hanc mundi temperet arte domum, qua venit exoriens, qua deficit, unde coactis

cornibus in plenum menstrua luna redit, unde salo superant venti, quid flamine captet

eurus, et in nubes unde perennis aqua, sit ventura dies, mundi quae

subruat arces,
purpureus pluvias cur bibit arcus aquas,
aut cur Perrhaebi tremuere cacumina Pindi,

solis et atratis luxerit orbis equis,
cur serus versare boves et plaustra Bootes,


26. deus ...

temperet: the Met. 1o, 295: coactis cornibus in Epicurean idea that it is necessary plenum. to eliminate the divine element 31. Cf. Lucr. 5, 95: una dies from natural law is not followed dabit exitio, quoted by Ovid, Am. by Propertius, any more than by 1, 15, 24. Indeed the inspiration Horace; cf. Hor. Car. I, 12, 15: given by Lucretius to his succesqui mare et terras variisque mune sors in similar queries is incalculadum temperat horis; but Horace ble. leaves the gods out in Ep. 1, 12,

32. bibit: a

common poetic 16 (quid temperet annum), where conception; cf. Verg. Georg. 1, questions similar to those in this 380 : bibit ingens arcus. passage are suggested. Cf. also 33. The origin of earthquakes Ovid, Met. 15, 66 sqq. Vergil, is treated under a typical case, viz. on the other hand, does not raise that of the Pindus range between the question of theism in his two Thessaly and Epirus. Tribes well-known passages that suggest called Perrhaebi were located on questions similar to those broached

either side of this range. here, Georg. 2, 477 sqq., and Aen. 34. luxerit: *puts on mourn1, 742–746. — temperet: con- ing.' trols.'

35. serus : sc. sit. As a mat27. venit: there is a character- ter of fact Ursa Major does not istically Propertian disregard of set at all in the latitude of the mood throughout this series of a Romans. Cf. Ovid, Met. 2, 528 : score of indirect questions, the in- gurgite caeruleo Septem prohibete dicatives somewhat outnumbering triones.

i.e. to the subjunctives. — coactis: cf. Used with the adjective serus. Ovid, Her. 2, 3: cornua cum boves et plaustra : the constellalunae pleno semel orbe coissent; tion of the Wain, or wagon, i.e.

versare :



Pleiadum spisso cur coit igne chorus,
curve suos fines altum non exeat aequor,

plenus et in partes quattuor annus eat,
sub terris sint iura deum et tormenta nocentum,

Tisiphones atro si furit angue caput,
aut Alcmaeoniae furiae aut ieiunia Phinei,

num rota, num scopuli, num sitis inter aquas,
num tribus infernum custodit faucibus antrum

Cerberus, et Tityo iugera pauca novem, an ficta in miseras descendit fabula gentis,

et timor haud ultra quam rogus esse potest.


39. nocentum Haupt Gigantum FLDV omitted in N reorum Housman.



Ursa Major, or the Septemtriones, 41. furiae : Alcmaeon was purthe seven oxen. Cf. 2, 33, 24: sued by the furies for having slain flectant Icarii sidera tarda boves. his mother Eriphyle. — ieiunia : - Bootes :

ox-driver, caused by the Harpies, who were plowman, whose constellation, sent to steal his food, after he had otherwise known as Ursa Minor, put out his sons' eyes. Neither is so situated that it seems to be of the punishments mentioned in driving the oxen in Ursa Major. this verse was ordinarily supposed

36. Cf. Germanicus, Arat. 256: to have been suffered after death. Pleiades suberunt brevis et locus 42. rota: of Ixion. — scopuli: occupat omnes, nec faciles cerni, of Sisyphus. — sitis: of Tantalus. nisi quod coeuntia plura sidera

44. pauca : ‘scant.'.

Propercommunem ostendunt ex omnibus

tius exaggerates the usual form of ignem; Hor. Car. 4, 14, 21: the myth willfully, showing that he Pleiadum choro scindente nubes. has reached the reductio ad absur

37. Cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 12, 16; dum in his catalogue, and is ready Psalms 104, 9.

for the probable alternative of the 39. nocentum : it is the question next verse.

Cf. Tib. I, 3, 75. of future punishment for guilty 45. Read Lucr. 3, 978-1023 for mortals that the poet is proposing the Epicurean explanation of all to tackle, cf. Statius, Silv. 2, 7, the foregoing myths. 117: nescis Tartaron et procul 46. We should have expected nocentum audis verbera.

ultra rogum in place of this il40. Cf. Tib. 1, 3, 69, n.

logical statement. 19 289


exitus hic vitae superest mihi: vos, quibus arma

grata magis, Crassi signa referte domum.


Ergo sollicitae tu causa, pecunia, vitae,

per te inmaturum mortis adimus iter.

47. superest 0 superet w.
7. 1. vitae NFL vitae es DVF2.



47. exitus hic: i.e. one busy even a corse to bury! 13–28: with such discussions.

Ye winds, ye waves, how could

you destroy so innocent, so con3, 7

fiding a youth ? Alas! AgamemThe drowning of Paetus with non knew your ruthlessness too its sad lessons and reflections well. And since you have the (C.S.). It is not improbable life of Paetus, restore his body for that this sympathetic elegy was burial, that his tomb may warn written to comfort the sorrowing others against like rashness. 29mother of the ill-fated youth, of 42: But nay! Foolish men will whose personality know not cease to venture on the deep, nothing that is not contained in though certain ruin awaits them, the poem itself. Pedantic efforts

as Ulysses learned. 43-66: Paeto rearrange, in what has seemed tus, too, had he not thirsted for to individual scholars a

wealth, might now be alive. logical order, the spontaneous How delicate a youth for so terexpression of poetic feeling in this rible a death! So did he tell typical elegy have been as futile the gods of wind and wave, as the as unnecessary. Cf. Tib. I, I, waters closed over him. 67-72: Intr.; J. Vahlen (Sitzungsber. d. Why did you save him, Kgl. Preuss. Akad. d. Wissen- Nereids, Thetis ? A lesson to me, schaften, 1883, pp. 69-90) has never to trust myself off the land!' made a careful, and in most re- 1. Ergo: cf. 1, 8, 1, n. - Note spects, convincing study of the the middle rime in this and many development of the thought. other hexameter verses here.

1-12 : “O money, source of 2. inmaturum : hypallage; in many woes, 'tis thou hast o'er- thought it belongs to mortis. whelmed Paetus in the waters, The verse ends in a favorite and left to his sad mother not rhythm for Book 3; cf. vv. 10,



tu vitiis hominum crudelia pabula praebes :

semina curarum de capite orta tuo.
tu Paetum ad Pharios tendentem lintea portus

obruis insano terque quaterque mari.
nam dum te sequitur, primo miser excidit aevo,

et nova longinquis piscibus esca natat:
et mater non iusta piae dare debita terrae,

nec pote cognatos inter humare rogos,
sed tua nunc volucres adstant super ossa marinae,

pro tumulo Carpathium omne marest.
infelix Aquilo, raptae timor Orithyiae,

quae spolia ex illo tanta fuere tibi ?
aut quidnam fracta gaudes, Neptune, carina?

portabat sanctos alveus ille viros.

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nunc tibi


rogos : cf.

22; see Kuttner, De Propertii seas must have new delicacies Elocutione Quaestiones, p. 42. while thus the mother of Paetus 3. crudelia : i.e. in the result.

cannot bury her dead. 4. de capite tuo de te 9. piae ... terrae :

dative; capite; cf. Cat. 55, 2: ubi sint otherwise debita is superfluous ; tuae tenebrae.

the earthly remains of her dutiful 5. Pharios . . . portus :

cf. son. Cf. 2, 13, 42. Cf. English Tib. I, 3, 32, n.

"pious dust of the martyrs." 6. insano ... mari: cf. I, 8, 10. pote : cf. Cat. 72, 7, n.; 76, 5; Verg. Ec. 9, 43: insani feriant

16, n. - cognatos sine litora fluctus. — terque qua

Cat. 68, 98. terque : a common expression for II. Cf. Ovid, Her. 10, 123: an indefinitely large number.

ossa superstabunt volucres inhuPropertius is thinking of the body mata marinae. of Paetus floating long in the sea. 12. Carpathium : Horatian par

7. dum te sequitur : Paetus ticularity; cf. v. 57 went on a commercial venture.

13. infelix: disastrous' primo ... aevo : temporal. (C.S.); cf. Verg. Aen. 2, 245: cidit: used absolutely, as in 3, 2, 26. monstrum in felix sacrata sistimus

8. Ovid imitates (Ibis, 148) arce. — timor : 'terror(C. S.). — thus : nostraque longinquus viscera Orithyiae : cf. 2, 26, n. piscis edet. It rouses the poet's 16. sanctos : involves a protest wrath to think that fish in foreign (C.S.); innocent'; akin to the


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