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ut per te clausas sciat excantare puellas,

qui volet austeros arte ferire viros.' talia Calliope, lymphisque a fonte petitis

ora Philetaea nostra rigavit aqua.


Arma deus Caesar dites meditatur ad Indos,

et freta gemmiferi findere classe maris.

see here the picture of the torches the expected triumph of Augustus. borne with unsteady hand by the 1-10: •The expedition that roisterers who disturb domestic Caesar is planning will surely peace, hurrying this way and that bring victory, revenge, and rich to escape just punishment for booty; 11-22: ye gods, let me their insults. The adjective be- live to see with my darling the longs more to fugae than to signa. glorious triumph on his return.'

49-50. A task worthy of Ovid ! 1. deus : starting with the worCf. also Tib. I, 1, 73; 2, 1, 75-78. ship of the city of Rome, which

50. ferire: 'to trick'; a slang had begun here and there in the use which reminds the reader of East in republican times, Augustus Plaut. Trin. 247: ibi illa penden- organized throughout the provtem ferit ; also of our colloquial inces of the empire a regular wor“strike the old man for fifty dol- ship of Roma et Augustus. The lars”; cf. Ter. Phorm. 47, ferietur direct worship of Augustus in his alio munere. — viros : "husbands.' lifetime sprang up here and there 52. Philetaea : cf. 3, 1, 1, n. in Italy where individuals or com

munities were under some special 3, 4

obligation to him, or for some similar

In Cumae a Propertius expresses confidence temple was erected to him. In that the projected expedition the city of Rome itself he deemed against the Parthians will achieve it politic to permit only the ingreat success. In harmony with direct worship under the form of the spirit of the preceding elegy the Lares Augusti and the Genius he disclaims any direct interest in Caesaris. The poets, however, do the expected spoils of victory won not hesitate to use the word deus by heroic deeds, but hopes as a of their patron. Cf. 4, 11, 60; lover to gaze with his lady upon Rushforth, Lalin Historical In



magna, viri, merces. parat ultima terra triumphos:

Tigris et Euphrates sub tua iura fluent: sera, sed Ausoniis veniet provincia virgis :

adsuescent Latio Partha tropaea Iovi.
ite agite, expertae bello date lintea prorae,

et solitum armigeri ducite munus equi.
omina fausta cano. Crassos cladem que piate:

scriptions, pp. 44-46; Shuck- 5. provincia: i.e. the ultima burgh, Augustus, p. 196; Hor. terra of v. 3. — virgis : dative; the Car. 4, 5, 32-35; Ep. 2, 1, 16; fasces, an emblem of Roman Verg Ec. I, 6. — meditatur: authority. Rome had long been restless to 6. Partha: it is common in recover from the Parthians its lost

poetry to use the gentile name for military standards, and once for the adjective (here Parthica); cf. all to settle the supremacy of 3, 3, 7. — tropaea : the poet forethe East. In 22 B.C. Augustus sees not merely the return of the finally started with an army for lost Roman standards, but also the East via Sicily. But the the placing of Parthian emblems victory was a bloodless one, for in the temple of the Capitoline in 20 B.C., the Parthian king Jove. Phraates sent back the Roman 7-8. While Propertius has laid standards and such prisoners as himself open to the charge of did not prefer to remain. — Indos : ambiguity as to the syntax of poetic enthusiasm is largely re- prorae and equi, it seems most sponsible for the word here. The likely that he is intending to adIndians represent the far East, but dress ite agite to the viri of v. the Parthians were the real limit 3, and that the same vocative is of the martial plans of the hour. in mind in vv. 9 and 10; prorae Cf. 2, 10, 15, n.

as dative is also more logical than 2. gemmiferi ... maris : cf. a vocative; while ducite is Tib. 2, 2, 15-16, nn. ; 4, 2, 19-20. natural for the rider, but not for

3. viri : those planning to ac- the horse. «Guide the accustomed company Augustus on the expedi- task of the war horse 'is Propertian tion; cf. v. 21. – parat: sc. tibi for • Guide the war horse to perform (i.e. Augustus) from the tua in v.4. his familiar function.'

4. Cf. Hor. Car. 2, 9, 21: 9. omina . . . cano: cf. Tib. Medumque flumen gentibus ad- 2, I, 25. — Crassos: cf. 2, 10, 14, ditum viitis minores volvere While the great defeat at vertices.

Carrhae in 53 B.c. loomed largest



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ite et Romanae consulite historiae.
Mars pater et sacrae fatalia lumina Vestae,

ante meos obitus sit, precor, illa dies
qua videam spoliis oneratos Caesaris axes,

ad vulgi plausus saepe resistere equos, inque sinu carae nixus spectare puellae

incipiam, et titulis oppida capta legam, tela fugacis equi et bracati militis arcus

et subter captos arma sedere duces.




in Roman thought, the standards various features of the triumph returned to Augustus included referred to in the following verses also those lost by Decidius Saxa are described. in 40 B.C. and by Antony in 36 14. ad . . . plausus : purpose

The triumphal car stopped 11. Mars pater: Mars as the ever and anon for the triumphator father of Romulus and Remus had to receive and acknowledge the a clear title to this designation, plaudits of the multitude; and but he and Jove did not enjoy a the fine-spirited horses might monopoly of the distinction ; cf. seem themselves to share in this Lucil. 1,9 (Mueller): nemo ut sit appreciation. Cf. Ovid, Trist. 4, nostrum, quin aut pater optumu' 2, 53: ipse sono plausuque simul divom ant Neptunu' pater, Liber, fremituque canente quadriingos Saturnu' pater, Mars, lanu', cernes saepe resistere equos. Quirinu' pater siet ac dicatur ad 16. titulis : the inscription upon UN11mn.

fatalia : the Romans the representations of conquered believed the destiny of Rome towns carried in the procession ; was closely linked with the life cf. Tib. 2, 5, 116, n. — oppida : or extinction of the sacred fire object of both spectare and legam, of Vesta ; cf. Livy, 26, 27, 14: while in vv. 17-18 the force of aeternos ignes, et conditum in spectare only is continued. penetrali fatale pignus imperii 17. fugacis equi: referring to Romani.

the Parthians' characteristic 13. oneratos ... axes: figur- method of fare. - bracati : a atively the triumphal car of the feature of Oriental dress; cf. Pers. emperor would be loaded with 3, 53: bracatis inlita Medis porspoils : literally they were carried ticus. before him in a long procession.

18. subter: with arma. It was See Pohlmey, Der römische Tri- beneath a trophy that the eminent umph, pp. 15 sqq., where the captives would be sitting in chains.


ipsa tuam serva prolem, Venus : hoc sit in aevum,

cernis ab Aenea quod superesse caput. praeda sit haec illis quorum meruere labores :

me sat erit sacra plaudere posse via.


Pacis Amor deus est, pacem veneramur amantes :

sat mihi cum domina proelia dura mea. nec tantum inviso pectus mihi carpitur auro,



Çf. Ovid, Ex P. 3, 4, 104: stentque where a large number of parallels super victos trunca tropaea viros. in this group is cited.

19. prolem : Augustus, as the The thought is similar to that adopted son of Julius Caesar. in Tib. 1, 1, and various passages

21. Cf. Tib. I, I, I; 49-50 ; in Horace, e.g. in Epod. I, 1; 75-77

Car. 2, 18; 2, 3; 1,4; etc. With .. via: the regular vv. 25-38, cf. Aetna, 219-251. route of a triumphal procession; Curiously at variance with modern cf. 2, 1, 34: Actiaque in sacra ideas is the inclusion under sciencurrere rostra via.

tific investigation of speculation

with regard to the future life. 3, 5

1-18: “As a poet of love, I preThe poet once again defines his fer peace to war and all its prizes mission and states his ambition. for which men struggle, only to Though not, probably, as various leave them behind when death eminent scholars have believed, comes. 19-22: In youth I have one with the previous elegy, this played the lover and sung the may be regarded as a medita- songs of love; 23-46: but when tion suggested by the text found advancing age has cooled love's in the final couplet of 3, 4, and ardor, let it be my delight to delve written shortly afterward. Indeed into the secrets of nature and try it forms the final poem of the to solve the problems of the afterclosely connected group that opens

world. 47-48: You who love this book, and that is also con- war, bring home the standards of nected in thought with the end of Crassus.' Book 2. Cf. Ites, De Properti Ele- 1-2. Cf. Tib. 1, 10, 49-56; 1, giis inter se Conexis, pp. 51-56, 1, 73-76.


nec bibit e gemma divite nostra sitis,
nec mihi mille iugis Campania pinguis aratur,

nec miser aera paro clade, Corinthe, tua.
o prima infelix fingenti terra Prometheo !

ille parum caute pectoris egit opus :
corpora disponens mentem non vidit in arte.

recta animi primum debuit esse via.
nunc maris in tantum vento iactamur, et hostem

quaerimus, atque armis nectimus arma nova.
haud ullas portabis opes Acherontis ad undas :


5. 8. caute O cauti w.


4. gemma: cf. Verg. Georg. 2, Corintho, cum caperetur, incensa. 506 : ut gemma bibat ; Cic. In Ver. For the craze for the genuine arti4, 62: erat etiam vas vinarium, cle at Rome cf. Hor. Sat. 1, 4, 27: ex una gemma pergrandi trulla stupet Albius aere ; 2, 3, 20 : quaeexiavata manubrio aureo.

rere amabam, qu10 vafer ille pedes tra sitis: the thing for the per- lavisset Sisyphus aere, quid sculpson; cf. 3, 16, 17.

tum infabre, quid fusum durius 5. Campania: the most fertile esset. and valuable land in Italy was, 7. infelix: i.e. because avarice and still is, in this district. For the was one of the elements included thought, cf. Hor. Sat. 2, 6, 1: in the composition of man; cf. Hoc erat in votis : modus agri Hor. Car. I, 16, 13: fertur Promenon ita magnus; 1,6, 58: non ego theus addere principi limo coactus circum me Satureiano vectari rura particulam undique. Promecaballo . . . narro.

theo: for representations of Pro6. miser: in his present temper metheus creating man, cf. Baum. Propertius views the avaricious Denk., p. 1413.

For the syniman as a truly pitiable object; cf. zesis, cf. Tib. 2, 1, 49. Hor. Sat. 1, 1, 63: iubeas miserum 8. parum caute: i.e. he ill deesse, libenter quatenus iid facit. served his name “ Prometheus " aera . . . clade, Corinthe: the es- (man of forethought') = provipecially valuable alloy known as dens (cf. non vidit, v. 9). Corinthian bronze was said to pectoris : “the heart'; cf. vv. 9-10. have been accidentally produced II. nunc: referring to the acat the destruction of Corinth by tual state of things in contrast Mummius in 146 B.C. Cf. Pliny, with what ought to have been N. H. 34, 2, 6; hoc casus miscuit (debuit).

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