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securo cara coniuge posse frui. adsis et timidis faveas, Saturnia, votis, et faveas concha, Cypria, vecta tua. aut si fata negant reditum tristesque sorores stamina quae ducunt quaeque futura neunt, me vocet in vastos amnes nigramque paludem dives in ignava luridus Orcus aqua.


Vos tenet Etruscis manat quae fontibus unda, unda sub aestivum non adeunda canem,

3. 36. neunt 0 canunt Heinsius regunt Dissen. 38. dives in O Ditis

et w.

33. Saturnia: Juno, the patroness of wedlock.

34. concha: cf. Baum. Denk., P. 94. Cypria: Venus, who might aid the poet's suit for a return of Neaera's favor.

35. sorores = Parcae.

36. Cf. 1, 7, I. quaeque: for the repetition cf. 3, 2, 4.- - neunt =nent; the form occurs only here; cf. L. 837.

37. vastos: 'desolate.'

38. dives: the Latinized epithet of the Greek Hades (Plouton) is here applied to the more vague equivalent, Orcus; H. & T. § 101. Translate in this order: dives Orcus, luridus in ignava aqua.

3, 5

1-20: While you, my friends, are seeking health at the Etruscan

springs, I am languishing at home, near death. Spare me, Persephone! I have done no crime, nor committed sacrilege, and I am still a young man. 2134: Spare me, all ye gods of the nether world, till old age shall ripen me for death! I hope my fears are groundless; but, friends, while you enjoy yourselves at the springs, do not forget to offer sacrifices for my recovery.'

1. Vos: we have no clue to the names of his friends here addressed. — Etruscis . . . fontibus: there are said to have been hot springs of a considerable reputation at various places in Etruria, e.g. Caere, Pisae, and Centumcellae. — unda = aqua.

2. non adeunda: on account of the unhealthy climate, which is still notorious all along this coast.




nunc autem sacris Baiarum proxima lymphis,
cum se purpureo vere remittit humus:
at mihi Persephone nigram denuntiat horam:
inmerito iuveni parce nocere, dea.

non ego temptavi nulli temeranda virorum
audax laudandae sacra docere deae,

nec mea mortiferis infecit pocula sucis

dextera nec cuiquam trita venena dedit,
nec nos sacrilegos templis admovimus ignes,
nec cor sollicitant facta nefanda meum,
nec nos insanae meditantes iurgia mentis.
inpia in adversos solvimus ora deos:
et nondum cani nigros laesere capillos,
nec venit tardo curva senecta pede.
natalem primo nostrum videre parentes,

5. 7. virorum w deorum O piorum Itali. sacrilegi w. 12. facta O furta Baehrens.

3. nunc at this time of year. autem : the word is not used by Tibullus, and occurs only here in the whole Tibullus collection. proxima in popularity.

4. remittit: i.e. from the frosts of winter.


5. nigram horam: i.e. of death; cf. 1, 3, 4-5; 3, 3, 25, n.; Prop. 2, 24, 34: non niger ille dies.

7. virorum: the presence of any of the male sex at the rites of the Bona Dea was strictly forbidden. Cf. 1, 6, 22: sacra bonae maribus non adeunda deae; Ovid, A. A. 3, 637; Fast. 5, 153; Plut. Cic. 19; Macr. 1, 12, 26; Prop. 4, 9, 25; Paus. 8, 31, 8. Men were excluded from the temples of 'great goddesses.'

II. sacrilegos G sacrilegis AV 16. tardo O tacito P.

8. laudandae: i.e. bonae. docere to divulge.'

10. dextera . . . dedit: mixing poison, and offering it to anybody, are distinguished. Both were far too common in this age. Cf. Aristoph. Frogs, 123 sqq.

15. cani cf. 1, 8, 42: сит vetus infecit cana senecta caput; Prop. 3, 5, 24. For the close parallels, to this and the following vv., in Ovid cf. A. A. 2, 669; Trist. 4. 10, 5; Am. 2, 14, 23. For theories in explanation cf. Intr. § 25.

16. tardo... pede: to be taken with senecta. Cf. Ovid, A. A. 2, 670: iam veniet tacito curva senecta pede.

cum cecidit fato consul uterque pari.

quid fraudare iuvat vitem crescentibus uvis 20 et modo nata mala vellere poma manu? parcite, pallentes undas quicumque tenetis. duraque sortiti tertia regna dei. Elysios olim liceat cognoscere campos Lethaeamque ratem Cimmeriosque lacus, cum mea rugosa pallebunt ora senecta



et referam pueris tempora prisca senex.
atque utinam vano nequiquam terrear aestu!
languent ter quinos sed mea membra dies.
at vobis Tuscae celebrantur numina lymphae
et facilis lenta pellitur unda manu.
vivite felices, memores et vivite nostri,
sive erimus seu nos fata fuisse velint.

18. consul uterque: the consuls Hirtius and Pansa both fell in battle at Mutina, B.C. 43. This verse occurs again in Ovid, Trist. 4, 10, 6. For a discussion of the chronological and other difficulties which thus arise cf. Intr. §§ 21, 25.

19. Cf. Ovid, Am. 2, 14, 23. 21. pallentes: cf. 3, 1, 28: pallida Ditis aqua.

22. duraque: the use of the two adjectives with regna is permissible in view of the fact that tertia regna is practically equivalent to Orcum. The three kingdoms were those of the three brothers, Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades.

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fabulous people whom Homer located only vaguely in the far west, where they were supposed to live in the midst of perpetual clouds and darkness. But later writers endeavored to localize them more definitely in different places, among others, in caves near Cumae, where they dwelt in perpetual darkness: cf. 4, 1, 64; Cic. Acad. 2, 19, 61. Hence Cimmerian' darkness became proverbial, and the epithet was easily applied to the regions (here, lacus) of the lower world.

27. aestu = febri.

30. manu: i.e. of the swim


32. fuisse the well-known euphemism for death. Cf. Verg. Aen. 2, 325: fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium.

interea nigras pecudes promittite Diti
et nivei lactis pocula mixta mero.



Sulpicia est tibi culta tuis, Mars magne, kalendis :
spectatum e caelo, si sapis, ipse veni.

hoc Venus ignoscet; at tu, violente, caveto

33. nigras: as the most appropriate sacrifices to the gods of the lower world, to whom (e.g. Dis, Vejovis, and Manes) black sheep were offered. The same idea appears in the folklore of other nations.

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34. lactis cf. 3, 2, 20, n.

4, 2

On the authorship of Book 4, see Intr. § 26.

The old Roman year began on March 1, on which day it was customary to give presents, even after the reformation of the calendar in 46 B.C. by Julius Caesar, which established Jan. 1 as New Year's day. As March I was the festival of the Matronalia (the femineae kalendae of Juv. 9.53), it was especially appropriate for husbands to give presents to their wives. This poem seems to have been written to accompany such a gift made by Cerinthus to Sulpicia, -a lover to a prospective wife, which may have been, as Belling

believes it was (Bell. U., p. 3), the following group of poems (4, 3-6), or they may have accompanied other gifts. On the personality of Cerinthus (whose name does not, indeed, appear in this elegy) and of Sulpicia, cf. Intr. § 24, and 2, 2, Intr.

1-14: On thy festal day, great Mars, Sulpicia's native beauty is so heightened by her adornment as to make her fit to be compared with the divine Vertumnus. 15-24: She is the only maiden worthy to receive all costly gifts. Therefore, ye Muses, sing of her your choicest praises.'

1. tibi culta: arrayed in thine honor.'

2. ipse veni: cf. 2, 5, 5.

3. Venus: the beloved of Mars. -ignoscet: on account of Sulpicia's remarkable beauty. Cf. Prop. 2, 28, 33. For the quantity of the last syllable cf. 1, 10. 13, n. — caveto: the tense implies the usual colloquial familiarity: "You'd better look out." Cf. PAPA., Vol. 26 (1895), p. lxi.




ne tibi miranti turpiter arma cadant.
illius ex oculis, cum vult exurere divos,
accendit geminas lampadas acer Amor.
illam, quidquid agit, quoquo vestigia movit,
conponit furtim subsequiturque Decor.
seu solvit crines, fusis decet esse capillis;
seu compsit, comptis est veneranda comis.
urit, seu Tyria voluit procedere palla;

urit, seu nivea candida veste venit.
talis in aeterno felix Vertumnus Olympo
mille habet ornatus, mille decenter habet.
sola puellarum digna est, cui mollia caris
vellera det sucis bis madefacta Tyros,

4. miranti: 'as you gaze in

admiration.'- arma cadant: several ancient works of art represent Mars thus forgetful of all but the amorous intentions of the moment. Cf. Baum. Denk., p. 886.

5. oculis cf. Propertius, of Cynthia (2, 3, 14): oculi, geminae, sidera nostra, faces.

6. geminas lampadas: cf. 2, 6, 16; Prop. 3, 16, 16.

8. conponit = ornat.

9. solvit crines: as was often the case in the retirement of the home; cf. 1, 3, 91; Prop 2, I. 7: vidi ad frontem sparsos errare capillos; Ter. Haut. 288 sq.: ornatam ita uti quae ornantur sibi, nulla mala re os expolitam muliebri.

10. compsit: as was more appropriate when she appeared in public places. -veneranda: 'adorable,' in the slang use of the word.

11. Tyria: for outdoor wear. 12. candida: for indoor use.

13. Vertumnus: the changing (vertere) god of gardens and fruits exhibited varying phases of beauty as the seasons advanced. Cf. Prop. 4, 2, a poem devoted to this god, his origin, name, and


14. Cf. Prop. 4, 2, 22: in quamcumque voles verte, decorus ero; Ovid, Am. 2, 5, 43: spectabat terram: terram spectare decebat ; maesta erat in vultu: maesta decenter erat.

16. sucis bis madefacta: ‘double-dyed.' The most costly Tyrian purple was thus prepared (dibapha), first with scarlet, then with the purpura. Cf. Hor. Car. 2, 16, 35 te bis Afro murice tinctae vestiunt lanae; Pliny, N. H. 9, 39, 137: dibapha tunc dicebatur quae bis tincta esset.

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