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quisve meam teneat, quot teneatve modis. tum tibi, lena, precor diras: satis anxia vivas,

moverit e votis pars quotacumque deos.

LIBER TERTIVS

Qui primus caram iuveni carumque puellae
· eripuit iuvenem, ferreus ille fuit.
durus et ille fuit, qui tantum ferre dolorem,

vivere et erepta coniuge qui potuit.
non ego firmus in hoc, non haec patientia nostro

ingenio : frangit fortia corda dolor :
nec mihi vera loqui pudor est vitaeque fateri

tot mala perpessae taedia nata meae.

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52. meam teneat: “is caressing 2. ferreus ille fuit: cf. 1, 10, my darling.'

2. Similar imitations of the gen53. satis : sarcastically; cf. uine work of Tibullus are frequent Eng., “You'll get all you want of in this book. it.' – vivas = sis.

4. coniuge : · betrothed'; prob54. •Should even the least little ably a coniunx by anticipation bit of my prayers be answered.' only ; cf. Verg. Aen. 3. 330 : ereptae A. 519.

magno flaminatus amore coniugis; 2, 344: gener auailinm Priamo

... ferebat. - qui: of the same On the authorship and poetic antecedent as the qui in v. 3; cf. merit of Book 3. cf. Intr. $ 25. Cat. 64, 96: quaeque regis Golgos

1-8: “A heartless wretch has quaeque Idalium frondosum. stolen my promised bride ; I no 5. in hoc = usque adeo ; 'to longer care to live ; 9-30: my this extent.' wish is that Neaera and her 6. For a similarly sententious mother may duly perform for verse, cf. 3, 4, 76: vincuntur molli me all the last sad offices.' pectora dura prece.

3, 2

To

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ergo cum tenuem fuero mutatus in umbram

candidaque ossa super nigra favilla teget, ante meum veniat longos incompta capillos

et fleat ante meum maesta Neaera rogum. sed veniat carae matris comitata dolore :

maereat haec genero, maereat illa viro. praefatae ante meos manes animamque precatae

perfusaeque pias ante liquore manus,
pars quae sola mei superabit corporis, ossa

incinctae nigra candida veste legent,
et primum annoso spargent collecta Lyaeo,

mox etiam niveo fundere lacte parent,
post haec carbaseis umorem tollere velis

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2. 15. precatae w rogate A rogatae V recentem Postgate.

9. ergo: cf. Prop. 2, 13, 17. tenuem ... in umbram : cf. Verg. Aen. 4, 278: in tenuem ex oculis evanuit auram.

10. The details of the Roman burial customs here following are given with varying degrees of completeness in several other noteworthy passages; e.g. Prop. 2,13; 1, 17, 19-24; 4, 1, 127; Ovid, Trist. 3, 3; Verg. Aen. 6, 202235. See B. G. Excursus, Scene 12; Guhl und Koner, p. 857. – super ... teget : tmesis.

12. fleat: of the lament just as the pyre was lighted. — Neaera : cf. Intr. $ 25; also 1, 1, 61 sqq.

13. matris ... dolore = a matre dolente; cf. Cat. 66, 50, n.

14. genero ... viro : dat. ; cf. V. 4, n.

15. sqq.: cf. B.G. 519. — praefatae ante : pleonastic.

16. liquore : i.e. aqua.

18. incinctae : enveloped' (in the black mourning robe). — nigra candida : the juxtaposition of the words is intended to heighten the effect of the contrast. — veste : instrumental abl. ; the ashes are gathered into the robe itself. — legent, like spargent in v. 19, expresses greater confidence than the following optative subjunctives.

20. fundere: cf. 1, 7, 50.lacte: for its appropriateness as an offering to earth powers, cf. Fowler, Roman Festivals, p. 103; cf. its use in incantations, e.g. 1, 2, 48.

21. carbaseis ... velis : “a linen cloth' upon which the ashes were dried. For the plural see Lex. S.V. Cf. Cic. In Ver. 5, 12, $ 30: tabernacula carbaseis intenta velis conlocabat.

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atque in marmorea ponere sicca domo. illic quas mittit dives Panchaia merces

eoique Arabes, pinguis et Assyria, et nostri memores lacrimae fundantur eodem :

sic ego conponi versus in ossa velim. sed tristem mortis demonstret littera causam

atque haec in celebri carmina fronte notet. Lygdamus hic situs est: dolor huic et cura Neaerae, coniugis ereptae, causa perire fuit.'

24. pinguis w dives 0.

22. marmorea . . . domo: 1.1. sepulcro; cf. the epitaph in Buecheler's Car. Epig. 434, v. 15: haec domus aeterna est, hic sum situs, hic ero semper ; also PAPA., Vol. 30, p. xxx; Prop. 2, 13, 32, n. -sicca: when dry,' - Only one in every three pentameters in this Elegy opens with a spondee; and one in every three contains only dactyls, e.g. v. 2. Cf. Intr. $ 42, II (5).

23. Panchaia : a fabulous island supposed to be in the Erythraean Sea. — merces : perfumes. Cf. Ovid, Fast. 3, 561: mixta bibunt molles lacrimis unguenta favillae.

24. Assyria : on the form of the verse cf. Intr. $ 42, II (2).

25. lacrimae : cf. 1, 3, 8.

26. sic:i.e. as just described. conponi: “to be consigned to the tomb'; cf. Prop. 2, 24, 35: tu mea con pones et dices, ossa, Properti, haec tua sunt.' – versus in

ossa: when I have become “ dust to dust."

27. littera: 'inscription’; cf. Ovid, Met. 11, 705: inque sepulcro si non urna, tamen innget nos littera.

28. celebri: óupon the thronged highway.' This is exactly the situation that Propertius (3, 16, 25) prays his tomb may not have.

29. Lygdamus : the word occurs nowhere else in the book. A comparison of the Greek túydos suggests the probability that it was formed to furnish an equivalent for Albius (Tibullus).

30. perire : poetic with causa; cf. Verg. Aen. 10, 90 : quae causa fuit, consurgere in arma. As other commentators have remarked, this was about the last reason Neaera would have assigned in an epitaph upon a rejected lover or husband! Tibullus would hardly have been so absurd.

Quid prodest caelum votis inplesse, Neaera,

blandaque cum multa tura dedisse prece, non ut marmorei prodirem e limine tecti,

insignis clara conspicuusque domo, aut ut multa mei renovarent iugera tauri

et magnas messes terra benigna daret,
sed tecum ut longae sociarem gaudia vitae

inque tuo caderet nostra senecta sinu
tum cum permenso defunctus tempore lucis

nudus Lethaea cogerer ire rate ?
nam grave quid prodest pondus mihi divitis auri,

arvaque si findant pinguia mille boves?
quidve domus prodest Phrygiis innixa columnis,

Taenare sive tuis, sive Caryste tuis,

10

10. nudus : cf. Job 1, 21; 3, 3

Prop. 3, 5, 14. — Lethaea : cf. 3, 1-26 : “ Alas! Neaera, what does 5, 24. We might have expected it profit that I pray continually - Stygia ; but the poets are not not for wealth, for that were idle particular to distinguish the in

- but for thy return to me, even fernal streams. Mention of the though poverty be our lot ? 27- river Lethe does not appear till 38: Without thee not all the after the classical Greek period. riches of the world can satisfy 12. Sc. quid prosit. me. Let me have my beloved, or 13. Phrygiis : a popular marble let me die!'

at Rome; white with purple 2. blandaque ... tura: cf. streaks. Prop. 4, 6, 5.

14. Taenare: the marble quar3. prodirem : i.e. as the owner. ried on this promontory was black.

5. multa : cf. I, I, 2. — renova- - Caryste: in Euboea; here a rent: i.e. by plowing; cf. Ovid, marble combining white and green Trist. 5, 12, 23: assiduo si non tints was obtained. The remains renovatur aratro.

of ancient structures in Rome 8. caderet nostra senecta = egy abound in fragments of rare marsenex occiderem.

bles, and the interior of such a building as the basilica of S. Paolo Fuori le Mura gives us a slight hint as to the magnificence in that respect that must have been common in Rome's best days. The poets frequently refer to this ; cf. Hor. Car. 2, 18, 3-5; 2, 15, 20; Statius Silv. I, 5, 34 sqq., Prop. 3, 2, 9.

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et nemora in domibus sacros imitantia lucos

aurataeque trabes marmoreumque solum ? quidve in Erythraeo legitur quae litore concha

tinctaque Sidonio murice lana iuvat,
et quae praeterea populus miratur ? in illis

invidia est : falso plurima vulgus amat.
non opibus mentes hominum curaeque levantur:

nam Fortuna sua tempora lege regit.
sit mihi paupertas tecum iucunda, Neaera:

at sine te regum munera nulla volo.
o niveam, quae te poterit mihi reddere, lucem !

o mihi felicem terque quaterque diem!
at si, pro dulci reditu quaecumque voventur,

audiat aversa non meus aure deus,
nec me regna iuvant nec Lydius aurifer amnis

nec quas terrarum sustinet orbis opes. haec alii cupiant, liceat mihi paupere cultu

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15. nemora : in the peristyles of luxurious houses, and the great villas of the wealthy.

16. aurataeque : cf. Hor. Car. 2, 18, 1: Non ebur neque aureum mea renidet in domo lacunar.

17. concha : by metonomy for the pearl within the concha. Cf. 2, 4, 30: e rubro lucida concha mari.

20. invidia : i.e. causa invidiae. — falso : “ without reason.'

21. levantur: a zeugma; the minds are not 'relieved,' and cares are not “removed.'

23. Cf. I, I, 57-58. – tecum : i.e. dummodo tecum sim.

25. niveam : cf. Cat. 107, 6, n. This is, however, an unusual adjective. Cf. the current slang, “ Treated him white." The opposite is atra (or nigra) dies; cf. 3, 5, 5, n.; Ovid, A. A. 1, 418.

28. non meus : “unfriendly.'

29. Lydius aurifer amnis : the Pactolus. Cf. Prop. 1, 14, II.

30. quas = quascumque.

31. Cf. 1, 1, passim. — paupere cultu: cf. 1, 10, 19.

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