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miles 'io' magna voce 'triumphe' canet. tum Messalla meus pia det spectacula turbae

et plaudat curru praetereunte pater. adnue: sic tibi sint intonsi, Phoebe, capilli,

sic tua perpetuo sit tibi casta soror.


Castra Macer sequitur : tenero quid fiet Amori ?

sit comes et collo fortiter arma gerat?


118. miles: collective.

His resolve to drown the sorrows 119. Neither Messalla nor Ti- of unsatisfied love in the sterner bullus lived to see the triumph of scenes of war is soon broken, and Messalinus, which is said to have after confessing how a groundless been actually celebrated in II A.D. hope had so often disappointed with Tiberius, on account of the him, and after appealing once more campaign in Illyria. Cf. Ovid, Ex to his Nemesis, by her love for her Ponto, 2, 2, 75-88. – pia det spec- lost sister, to look upon him in tacula : exhibit his affection in the pity, he closes by affirming repeatmanner indicated by the following edly that after all his beloved is

not herself hard-hearted, and that 121. sic : cf. v. 63, n. — intonsi he does not wish to cause her a

. capilli : cf. 1, 4, 37-38; 4, 4, moment's pain. 2; Hor. Car. I, 21, 2; Epod. 15, 1-14: “Macer is going to war; 9.

why not I, too? Yes! I will bid It is hard to understand why farewell to love, and be a warrior. any one familiar with the artless

Empty words ! How often I have art of Tibullus should argue sworn to go, but all in vain! against the genuineness of this 15-28: Cruel Cupid! Perish thy poem on the ground that it is in- darts! I tormented concomplete !

tinually and should have perished long since but for the kind goddess

Hope. Do not try to thwart her, This, perhaps the last elegy my beloved! 29-40: Be merciful, composed by Tibullus, has a I beg, by the memory of thy unpeculiar simplicity of beauty, and happy sister, the favor of whose illustrates excellently the poet's shade I shall seek in my behalf ! gentle nature and tender heart. 41-54: After all, I would not



2, 6



et seu longa virum terrae via seu vaga ducent

aequora, cum telis ad latus ire volet? 5 ure, puer, quaeso, tua qui ferus otia liquit,

atque iterum erronem sub tua signa voca.
quod si militibus parces, erit hic quoque miles,

ipse levem galea qui sibi portet aquam.
castra peto, valeatque Venus valeantque puellae:

et mihi sunt vires, et mihi facta tubast.
magna loquor, sed magnifice mihi magna locuto

excutiunt clausae fortia verba fores. 6. 8. levem AV levi G. 10. facta O fata Cornelissen laeta Postgate. cause my mistress pain. It is not num praecipuos ; also ode in Greek she, but the old hag that guards drama, and Eng. slang, “ You her, who grieves me. Curses upon don't catch this chicken," etc. the wretch!'

8. ipse : Tibullus proposes to 1. Macer: probably Aemilius enlist merely as a private, and Macer of Verona, who, as a friend would perform every service, howand contemporary of Vergil, would ever menial, for himself. — levem: have been also a friend of Tibullus. in the same sense in which the He wrote poems on various sub- word is used of food, i.e. easy to jects connected with natural digest'; so the plain, hard fare of history.

a soldier's life is thought of. Cf. 2. sit: G. 259; R. 1610. The Hor. Od. 1, 31, 16; cichorea leanswer expected is, of course, a vesque malvae. - galea : the handinegative one. Cf. Wolff, De est cup a soldier had; cf. Prop. Enuntiatis Interrogativis, p. 26. 3, 12, 8: potabis galea fessus 3. vaga: 'inconstant.'

Araxis aquam. 3, 39: praeda vago iussit geminare

facta tubast: i.e.

not pericula ponto.

only have I strength in general, 4. latus : i.e. Macer's. — volet : but an especial opportunity now the mood changes to correspond open, to go. with the verb of the protasis, du- 11. magna: cf. Ovid, Met. I, cent, which expresses a probability. 751 : quem quondam magna lo5. ure: the allusion is to the

quentem; 6, 151 : cedere caelitibus, custom of branding runaway

verbisque minoribus uti. slaves, with all the torture thus 12. fores: i.e. of the house of implied. puer: Amor.

Nemesis ; to find her door closed ego. Cf. Plaut. Trin. against him takes all the starch 1115: hic homost omnium homi- out of his brave resolve.

Cf. 2,

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7. hic


iuravi quotiens rediturum ad limina numquam !

cum bene iuravi, pes tamen ipse redit.
acer Amor, fractas utinam tua tela sagittas,

si licet, extinctas adspiciamque faces !
tu miserum torques, tu me mihi dira precari

cogis et insana mente nefanda loqui.
iam mala finissem leto, sed credula vitam

Spes fovet et fore cras semper ait melius.
Spes alit agricolas, Spes sulcis credit aratis

semina, quae magno fenore reddat ager:
haec laqueo volucres, haec captat arundine pisces,

cum tenues hamos abdidit ante cibus :
Spes etiam valida solatur compede vinctum

(crura sonant ferro, sed canit inter opus):





14. bene : •finely,'i.e. with great

a scrawler on the apparent bravado. Cf. Plaut. Pers. walls of the basilica at Pompeii 495: bene dictis tuis bene facta evidently had this verse in mind aures meae auxilium exposcunt. when he wrote (CIL. 4, 1837): iuravi: H. 599, 1. – pes ... ipse : cur gaudia differs spemque foves for the reverse idea cf. Prop. et cras usque redire iubes. 2, 25, 20: invitis ipse redit pedi- 22. magno fenore: this modal bus.

ablative is really more exact than 15. acer Amor: cf. 4, 2, 6. the corresponding abl. of accomp. sagittas . . . faces : H. & T. $ . in Ovid, Rem. Am. 173: semina

16. adspiciamque : on the posi- quae tibi cum multo faenore tion of the copula cf. 2, 5, 72, n. reddat ager ; for the original seed

18. nefanda : not merely such is not itself returned to the sower as have just been spoken (vv. 15- with others at all, but comes back 16), but more serious blasphemies. to him only by the increase.' Cf. Cf. 3, 5, 14; 4, 16.

1 Ep. to the Corinthians 15, 19. finissem: we should expect 36-38. nisi Spes vitam foveret ; but the 24. tenues : slender,' i.e. in apodosis becomes an indicative comparison to the creatures which clause, to state the fact more em- are caught on them. phatically. Cf. Ovid, A. A. 3, 43 : 26. crura sonant ferro: the subnunc quoque nescirent! sed me ject is different in English : “the Cytherea docere iussit.

iron fetters clank upon his legs.'


Spes facilem Nemesim spondet mihi, sed negat illa.

hei mihi, ne vincas, dura puella, deam. parce, per inmatura tuae precor ossa sororis :

sic bene sub tenera parva quiescat humo. illa mihi sancta est, illius dona sepulcro

et madefacta meis serta feram lacrimis,
illius ad tumulum fugiam supplexque sedebo

et mea cum muto fata querar cinere.
non feret usque suum te propter flere clientem :

illius ut verbis, sis mihi lenta veto,
ne tibi neglecti mittant mala somnia manes,


P xxx.

canit: the subject is violently K.P.H. in PAPA., Vol. 30 (1899), changed to a personal one easily imagined from the context 31. dona :

besides garlands, (vinctum).

these included offerings of blood, 27. Nemesim: see Intr. $ 24. oil, milk, honey, and perfumes. 28. deam: Spes.

B.G., p. 521 ; H. & T. $ 3. —- sepul29. inmatura : 'not yet due to cro: not a terminal dat. ; .in honor death,' so “untimely.' --- ossa : by of her tomb. metonomy for mors.

Cf. Prop.

34. cum: the word implies the 1, 19, i, n. — sororis : this rather poet's expectation of finding symshadowy person is nameless, but pathy with him in his woes. — from the definiteness of the details muto : equivalent to a concessive given below seems to be real clause. rather than fictitious.

35. clientem : he claims her as 30. sic . . . quiescat : cf. 2, 5, a patroness, just as in v. 33 he 63, -sub tenera ... humo: the has played the part of a fugitive petition will be that the ground slave seeking refuge at her tomb. shall rest tenderly upon the ashes 36. illius ut verbis : “as if I of her dead sister as if it had con- were using her own words.' - sis : sciousness to appreciate the con- the rare subjv. instead of the reguventional request, sit tibi terra lar inf. with veto. H. 642, 5. – levis. The belief that the soul of lenta : indifferent.' the dead rested eternally in the 37. Cf. H. & T. $ 3; Verg. grave, while by no means univer- Aen. 6, 896; and J. W. Hewitt in sal among the Romans, is clearly Harvarit Studies, 19, 92, n. 6. indicated in many epitaphs. Cf. The Manes might also send good



maestaque sopitae stet soror ante torum, qualis ab excelsa praeceps delapsa fenestra

venit ad infernos sanguinolenta lacus.
desino, ne dominae luctus renoventur acerbi:

non ego sum tanti, ploret ut illa semel.
nec lacrimis oculos digna est foedare loquaces:

lena nocet nobis, ipsa puella bonast.
lena necat miserum Phryne furtimque tabellas

occulto portans itque reditque sinu:
saepe, ego cum dominae dulces a limine duro

agnosco voces, haec negat esse domi:
saepe, ubi nox promissa mihi est, languere puellam

nuntiat aut aliquas extimuisse minas.
tum morior curis, tum mens mihi perdita fingit,



45. necat G vetat AV vocat Lachmann suggests.

dreams. • Her sweet forgotten puellae flendo turgiduli rubent shade' (Williams).

ocelli. 39. qualis : cf. 1, 10, 37, n. 44. lena : 'her old hag of a

40. lacus : cf. Verg. Aen. 6, guardian. Tibullus feels obliged 134: bis Stygios innare lacus. to vent his feelings upon some

41. desinð: the only instance body. of the short final syllable in this 45. tabellas: billets-doux.' word. Tibullus has also nescið. 47. cum: concessive, with ind. Similar shortenings are rare up to Cf. note on Cat. 68, 32. — duro: it the time of Ovid. Cf. L. 2443. is called hard-hearted because it luctus: over her sister's untimely will not let bim pass to his lady love. death.

48. haec: lena. Cf. the story 42. Cf. 1, 1, 51, 52. The stand- of Nasica and Ennius, Cic. De point of 1, 10, 63-64 is a differ- Orat. 2, ch. 68. ent one. Cf. also Ovid, Trist. 49. Often when a meeting has 2, 209: nam non sum tanti, reno- been arranged.' vem ut tua vulnera.

50. aliquas :

made by some 43. digna est : ‘it is not meet unnamed rival perhaps. that she. foedare loquaces : cf. 51. perdita : desperately jealCat. 3, 17: tua nunc opera meae ous.'

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