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et Danai proles, Veneris quod numina laesit,

in cava Lethaeas dolia portat aquas.
illic sit quicumque meos violavit amores,

optavit lentas et mihi militias.
at tu casta precor maneas, sanctique pudoris

adsideat custos sedula semper anus.
haec tibi fabellas referat positaque lucerna

deducat plena stamina longa colu.
at circa gravibus pensis adfixa puella

paullatim somno fessa remittat opus.
tunc veniam subito, nec quisquam nuntiet ante,

sed videar caelo missus adesse tibi.
tunc mihi, qualis eris, longos turbata capillos,

obvia nudato, Delia, curre pede.


86. colu M colo OP. nunc A.

87. at P ac 0. 89. tunc 0 tum w.

91. tunc GV

80. cava

cavata = perfo- indicates perhaps that this elegy rated'; cf. Ovid, A. A. 1, 432 : was written in the fall of the elapsusque cava fingitur aure year. lapis ; Met. 12, 130 : parmam 87. at = ac.

Tibullus is pargladio galeamque cavari cernit. ticular not to use ac before a pala

81. quicumque : a comprehen- tal; cf. Haupt, Opusc. I, 109; cf. sive term for potential or actual v. 63, n. puella : the collective rivals.

use for pivellae ; cf. Lachmann on 83. tu: the same as meos amores Prop. 3; 3, 29. in v. 81, i.e. Delia.

go. caelo: Tibullus uses the 84. anus : either Delia's mother preposition in a similar phrase in (cf. I, 6, 57–66) or nurse (cf. 4, 13, 13 Prop. 4, 3, 41). For the picture 92. nudato: Delia, surprised at cf. Ter. Haut. 275 sqq.

her quiet evening's work, not only 85. fabellas referat: the older will leave her hair unconfined, but woman is to “spin yarns' to the also will not even stop to put on maidens while they all spin yarn, her sandals as she runs to meet her — their evening's task. Cf. the lover. It is clear from this idyllic story of Lucretia's occupation in picture of Delia's modest home Livy, 1, 57, 9. — lucerna : the fact life that she was not a married that lights were necessary so early woman.

hoc precor, hunc illum nobis Aurora nitentem

Luciferum roseis candida portet equis.

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Hunc cecinere diem Parcae fatalia nentes

stamina non ulli dissoluenda deo;


93. hunc: “such as this.' 23-42: Egypt! 'Tis to thee, illum . . . Luciferum : that happy father Nile, and to thee, great

Osiris, that she owes her preëmi

nence in agriculture, especially in I, 7

the fruit of the vine, which gladdens After Messalla's brief but vic- the heart of man and drives dull torious campaign in Aquitania, care away:

43-54: Yea, Osiris, probably in B C. 31, he was sum- thou lovest the festal day, with moned by Augustus to help settle

dance and song

and beauty. affairs in the East (cf. 1, 3, Intr.), Come then, and join in the celeand his triumph over the Aquitani bration of this glad natal day! was therefore delayed until his Come thou, Genius of the day, return to Rome in B.C. 27, when and let me offer thee appropriate it was celebrated on Sept. 25. offerings! 55-64: And, Messalla, His birthday occurring a few days may thy sons live to emulate thy thereafter, he received from Ti- deeds and bring honor to thy bullus for the occasion this con- declining years!

Let not gratulatory poem. Belling (Un- forget thy blessings conferred upon tersuchung, pp. 174-175) has them ! And may this day many collected an interesting series of times return, with ever-increasing parallelisms from Vergil's Georgics. joy!'

1-12: · The Fates decreed that 1. Hunc ... diem: Messalla's this should be the birthday of one birthday.

Parcae : the three siswho should subdue proud Aqui- ters, Clotho ( spinner '), Lachesis tania. That has come true, Mes- (* allotter '), and Atropos (“ inevitsalla; the Romans have seen thy able '). — nentes : the fates triumph ; I was a witness of thy sang as they spun before the birth glorious deeds, as were the ocean, of Pollio's son in Verg. Ec. 4, 46– strange rivers, and people. 13- 47 : 'talia saecla,' suis dixerunt, 22: Witnesses, too, of thy victo- 'currite' fusis concordes stabili rious progress are such eastern fatorum numine Parcae. In Cat. lands as Cilicia, Syria, and Egypt. 64, 323 sqq the prophecy is uttered



hunc fore, Aquitanas posset qui fundere gentes,

quem tremeret forti milite victus Atax. evenere: novos pubes Romana triumphos

vidit et evinctos bracchia capta duces : at te victrices lauros, Messalla, gerentem

portabat niveis currus eburnus equis. non sine me est tibi partus honos: Tarbella Pyrene

7. 8. niveis w nitidis 0.

9. Tarbella Scaliger tua bella 0.

at the wedding of the father and account of the victorious progress mother, with the oft-recurring re- of Messalla to the limits of Aquifrain, ócurrite ducentes subtegmina,

tania proper.

As the Atax was currite, fusi.' In Tib. 4, 5, 3, the directly in the line of march from Parcae are represented as singing

the Province' to Aquitania, very the fates at the time of birth : te likely it was the scene of the first nascente novum Parcae cecinere conflict between the armies. puellis servitium.

In this case 5. evenere : i.e. the predictions the time is undefined. Ovid of the preceding verses. — triseems to have had this passage in umphos : like lauros (v.7), merely mind when he wrote (Trist. 5, 3, a poetic plural. Cf. 2, 5, 117. 25), scilicet hani legem nentes fata- 6. capta : by hypallage for caplia Parcae stamina bis genito bis tos. - duces : among the features cecinere tibi.

of Roman triumphal processions 2. dissolŭenda : cf. v. 40; Cat. was a selection of the noblest cap66, 38, n. - deo: emphatic; not tives led, bound, to death (comeven the gods can escape the de- monly inflicted at the Tullianum); crees of fate.

cf. Ovid, A. A. I, 215: ibunt 3. hunc: best taken as referring ante duces onerati colla catenis. to Messalla himself; for a simi- 8. portabat: descriptive imperlar ambiguity in pronouns cf. fect. — niveis: cf. Ovid, A. A. 1, tibi (vv. 53 and 55) referring to 214: quattuor in niveis aureus different persons, and haec (Prop. ibis equis ! - currus eburnus : the 1, 13, 9, 11, 13); Prop. 3, II, 37, triumphal car was richly adorned

with gold and ivory, and drawn by 4. milite: instrumental.—Atax: four horses, often, but not always, this river (the modern Aude) was white. For details of the Roman in Gallia Narbonensis; but Roman triumph see Pohlmey's Der rögeography was notoriously in- mische Triumph. Cf. 2, 5, 120. exact; moreover vv. 9-12 show 9. non sine me: i.e. Tibullus that the poet is not confining the was present in the Aquitanian cam



testis et Oceani litora Santonici,
testis Arar Rhodanusque celer magnusque Garumna,

Carnuti et flavi caerula lympha Liger.
an te, Cydne, canam, tacitis qui leniter undis

caeruleus placidis per vada serpis aquis,
quantus et aetherio contingens vertice nubes

frigidus intonsos Taurus alat Cilicas ?


12. Carnuti w Carnoti O Carnutis M.

13. an w at 0.

paign. Tarbella Pýrēnē: the ated upon it, and interesting beTarbelli were an Aquitanian tribe cause of the peculiarity possibly living close up under the Pyrenees,

referred to in these verses and near the ocean.

described by Strabo, viz. that be10. Santonici : the Santones fore actually reaching the sea it occupied the territory on the coast flows into a kind of lake (önyua). just north of the river Garonne. 14. placidis : * Thy placid

11. Arar: the modern Saône. stream, thine azure gleam, and

12. Carnuti ... flavi: gen. thy wavelet's noiseless flow' sing. used in the collective sense: (Cranstoun).

Such tautologies of the fair-haired Carnute.' The are not uncommon in the poets; Carnuti lived between the Seine cf. aestiva in v. 22 following the and the Loire. — et: the trajection same idea in v. 21 ; Sen. Herc. of this copula occurs more often in Fur. 680: placido quieta labitur this elegy than in any other of Lethe vado. – vada : 'course, Tibullus ; cf. vv. 15, 21, 38, 39, 54. 15. quantus ... contingens .. Propertius is equally free in this Taurus alat quantus sit Taurus respect; Ovid, more cautious; no qui contingit et alit; cf. qualis example occurs in Catullus. Cf. abundet (vv. 21-22). The Haupt, Opusc. I, p. 122. caerula Taurus furnished support to the lympha : in apposition with Liger : Cilicians by its cultivated slopes the epithet must refer to the bay and its grazing grounds. at the mouth of the river, if it has 16. intonsos: here a sign of any meaning

rude barbarity: cf. Liv. 21, 32, 7: 13. an ... canam : the missing homines intonsi et inculti; Ovid, first member of this double ques- Ex P. 4, 2, 2: intonsis ... Getis. tion might be supplied thus: But the early Romans had not been utrum taceam quod non ipse vidi. so particular; barbers first came to

- Cydne: though not the largest Rome in the year 300 B C.; cf. F. river of Cilicia, the Cydnus was W. Nicolson's discussion of Greek important because Tarsus was situ- and Roman Barbers in Harvard


quid referam, ut volitet crebras intacta per urbes

alba Palaestino sancta columba Syro,
utque maris vastum prospectet turribus aequor

prima ratem ventis credere docta Tyros,
qualis et, arentes cum findit Sirius agros,

fertilis aestiva Nilus abundet aqua?
Nile pater, quanam possim te dicere causa
· aut quibus in terris occuluisse caput?
te propter nullos tellus tua postulat imbres,

arida nec pluvio supplicat herba Iovi.
te canit atque suum pubes miratur Osirim




Stud. in Class. Philology, Vol. 2, epithet is particularly appropriate pp. 41 sqq.; Varro, R. R. 2, 11, 10. to the Nile, without which Egypt

18. Palaestino: an adjective, would not exist except as a part of used with no well-defined meaning the desert; it befits a Roman poet by Tibullus. Palestine was a part well, too, for Egypt was one of the of Syria, to be sure ; but the fact principal granaries of Rome. No referred to here was

doubt Tibullus was well acquainted characteristic of Palestine than of with the beautiful statue of father other parts of the general region. Nile, the type of which was imi- sancta : because the dove was tated in representations of the sacred to Astarte, as well as to her Tiber; cf. Baum. Denk., p. 1028. Greek counterpart, Aphrodite. causa : the question is answered Syro: dat. of ref. : in the eyes by Ovid, Met. 2, 254-255: Nilus of the Syrian.'

in extremum fugit perterritus 19. turribus : lofty palaces ’; orbem occuluitque caput, quod a vague word; cf. Prop. 3, 21, 15. adhuc latet. The modern term is "skyscraper," 24. occuluisse caput: only in at least in American cities.

recent times has the source been 21. qualis, etc. : cf. note on v. discovered. The Nile problem 15. — Sirius : cf. I, I, 27, n. was discussed by Herodotus in

22. fertilis : active, ó fertilizing.' Bk. 2, by Seneca, Nat. Quaest. - abundet: the annual overflow

4, I sqq. and elsewhere. of the Nile begins about the time 26. pluvio ... Iovi: cf. H. & T. of the rising of Sirius.

$ 207 23. pater: cf. Ennius, Ann. 27. Osirim :

as the greatest (Vahlen) 1, 54: teque pater Ti- male divinity of the Egyptians, berine tuo cum flumine sancto. The Osiris, the representative of the

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