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praebeat et pleno pinguia musta lacu. nam veneror, seu stipes habet desertus in agris
seu vetus in trivio florida serta lapis : et quodcumque mihi pomum novus educat annus,
libatum agricolae ponitur ante deo. flava Ceres, tibi sit nostro de rure corona
12. florida O. florea w.
Cf. 2, 5,
ple in the Forum Holitorium at Rome; cf. Preller 3, Vol. 2, p. 253. Cf. also 2, 6, 21. destituat: used absolutely here. frugum: the product of the grandia poma, as musta is that of the tenerae vites.
10. pinguia : “rich'; cf. Hor. Sat. 2, 4, 65: pingui mero. — lacu: the trough-like wine vat into which the juice of the grape ran when first pressed out. 86.
• and I have good reason to hope, for 'I am faithful in my worship of all the rustic divinities, even the humblest. For this elliptical use of num, cf. Ter. Ad. 190.
- stipes. lapis: old tree trunks, stakes, and stones, either plain, or rudely carved, often represented divinities to the Romans, and were worshiped, whether standing by themselves in the fields, or set up at the crossroads. Boundary stones furnish an excellent illustration ; as representatives of the god Terminus they were honored with garlands hung upon them at certain times. Cf. Ovid, Fast. 2, 641 sqq.: Termine, sive lapis, sive es defossus in agro stipes, ab antiquis tu quoque numen habes.
te duo diversa domini de parte coronant binaque serta tibi binaque liba ferunt; Prop. I, 4, 24; Lucr. 5, 1999,
and Munro's note on the passage; Lucian, Alex. 30; Champney, p. 4. — desertus : “standing alone,'contrasted with trivio (v. 12).
12. florida : for the more exact florea ; cf. 1, 2, 14; on the other hand Vergil, Aen. I, 430, uses florea for florida. 13. novus
annus : a newly recurring harvest time.
14. libatum : (as a consecrated offering.'—ante : adverbial.—deo : in the collective sense, including Spes, as well as Vertumnus, Pomona, or Silvanus. Cf. 1, 5, 27.
15. flava : the usual epithet, transferred to the goddess from the ripened grain which she represents.
Cf. Servius on Verg. Georg. 1, 96: flava dicitur propter ar tarum colorem in maturitate ; Ovid, Fast. 4. 424. spicea : the most appropriate offering; cf. 2, I, 4; 1, 10, 22; Hor. Car. Saec. 29-30 : fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellus spicea donet Cererem corona ; Ovid, Am. 3, 10, 3; Baum. Denk. p. 417.
spicea, quae templi pendeat ante fores,
terreat ut saeva falce Priapus aves :
custodes, fertis munera vestra, lares:
nunc agna exigui est hostia parva soli:
clamet ‘io messes et bona vina date': 25
iam modo iam possim contentus vivere parvo 25. iam modo iam possim M iam modo non possum 0 quippe ego iam possum P iam modo nunc possum w iam modo si possum Lachmann iam modo iners possim Vahlen iam mibi, iam possim Schneidewin dum modo iam possim Baehrens.
16. ante fores : cf. Prop. 4, 3, 17. i.e. those usually offered as most
17. ruber custos: wooden fig- appropriate ; cf. Hor. Sat. 2, 5, ures of Priapus were commonly 12: dulcia poma et quoscumque painted with vermilion and placed feret cultus tibi fundus honores, in gardens, where they served as ante larem gustet venerabilior lare the prototype of the scarecrow of dives. lares: here the lares to-day. Cf. Ovid, Fast. 1, 415: rurales ; for their nature see H. at ruber, hortorum decus et tutela, and T. § 189. At the festival of Priapus; Verg. Georg. 4, 110: et Ambarvalia (cf. 2, 1) they were custos furum atque avium cum honored with the other rural difalce saligna Hellespontiaci servet vinities. tutela Priapi; Hor. Sat. 1, 8, 3-8. 21. tum : in the times referred
18. falce: “pruninghook,' the to in felicis quondam (v. 19). — gardener's weapon. — Priapus : a lustrabat: cf. 2, 1, 1; there were god of fruitfulness in both plants several festivals of purification, and animals; his worship was not such as the Ambarvalia (2, 1), the indigenous in Italy, but imported Palilia (2, 5, 85 sqq.), and the Feriae from the Asian shores of the Sementivae (Ovid, Fast. 1, 658); Hellespont. Translate in apposi- at any of these the customs detion with ruber custos.
scribed in vv. 21-24 might be wit19. felicis quondam: cf. v. 2, n.; nessed annually. Verg. Ec. I, 75: ite meae felix
25. iam ..
iam : hencequondam pecus ite capellae.
forth’; the repetition emphasizes 20. fertis : the present of cus- the idea of the actual completion tomary action. — munera vestra: of his military experiences and of nec semper longae deditus esse viae, sed canis aestivos ortus vitare sub umbra
arboris ad rivos praetereuntis aquae.
nec tamen interdum pudeat tenuisse bidentes 30
aut stimulo tardos increpuisse boves,
desertum oblita matre referre domum.
parcite : de magno est praeda petenda grege. 35 hic ego pastoremque meum lustrare quot annis his having obtained from now on, 28. ad rivos : cf. Ovid, Rem. without interruption, that quiet Am. 194: ipse potes rivos ducere life which he desires. For the lenis aquae; Hor. Epod. 2, 25: repetition, with inserted word, cf. labuntur altis interim ripis aquae ; Verg. Aen. 12, 179. modo Lucr. 2, 29-30 : prostrati in dummodo. — possim mihi liceat. gramine molli propter aquae rivum – vivere = vitam degere. - parvo: sub ramis arboris altae. my modest competence.'
29. tenuisse : there is no apprenec : • without being.' ciable difference in meaning besemper implies the rather impa- tween the perfect tense here, and tient memory of several expedi- in v. 30, and the present, in referre tions already engaged in. — viae : (v. 32). The perfect forms were marches.'
sometimes more convenient met27. canis: i.e. the dog star, rically. Cf. v. 46 and 74; also 1, Sirius. The climax of summer 10, 61–63 ; Prop. 1, 1, 15 ; 17, 1. heat is usually coincident with the - bidentes : common garden days following the star's appear- implement. ance in July, and the ancients re- 31. agnamve sinu : cf. Isaiala, garded it as a cause; cf. the modern 40, II: “He shall gather the expression, “dog days "; cf. 1, 4, lambs with his arm, and carry 6: aestivi tempora sicca canis; 1, them in his bosom." 7, 21. - ortus : plural, referring to 32. oblita matre : abl. abs. the daily rising of the sun (and the 35. hic: on my little farm, in heat) during the period after the contrast to the preceding verse.canis has appeared. Cf. Hor. Car. -que. et: cf. 1, 3, 25. — lus4. 15, 15; 1, 17, 17. - sub umbra : trare: the annual purification here cf. Verg. Ec. I, 1,1; Hor. Car. 1, referred to took place at the Palilia 1, 21; Epod. 2, 23; Lucr. 2, (or Parilia) on April 21 ; cf. nn. 30.
on 2, 5, 87, and go.
et placidam soleo spargere lacte Palem. adsitis, divi, nec vos e paupere mensa
dona nec e puris spernite fictilibus.
pocula, de facili conposuitque luto.
quos tulit antiquo condita messis avo::
si licet et solito membra levare toro. quam iuvat inmites ventos audire cubantem
et dominam tenero continuisse sinu
46. continuisse 0 detinuisse Y tum tenuisse Baehrens.
36. placidam: used prolepti- Juv. 6, 342-345. With the general cally.
idea of vv.
38-39 cf. 1, 10, 17-18. 37. paupere mensa : in con- 40. facili: in the passive sense, trast to the expensive tables of plastic.'
For the position of ego the rich, a kind of extravagance
cf. BPW., Vol. 18 (1898), Sp. 213; which was a special fad at Rome ; for
-que before a dissyllable ending cf. B. G., pp. 294–296.
a pentameter cf. v. 78; Intr. § 28. 38. fictilibus : although Tibul- 42. condita : “ingathered.' lus appears to be pleading his 43. satis est : for similar repetipoverty as an excuse for using tions, which are quite in the manearthenware dishes instead of ves- ner of Tibullus, cf. 1, 3, 4-5; 1, 2, sels of silver and gold in sacrific- 29-30 ; 1, 5, 61-65 ; 2, 5, 100; ing to the gods, as a matter of Prop. 2, 13, 25. fact it was the well-known con- 44. solito : cf. Ovid, Trist. 3, 3, servatism always attaching to re- 39. — toro : properly the bedding ligious rites which required that or covering, the part upon which the old-fashioned sacrificial vessels the body lies, as distinguished of pottery should be retained even from lectus as a whole. long after this time. Cf. Lanciani, 45. iuvat : with the thought Anc. Rome in the Light of Mod. cf. Lucr. 2, 1-2 :
suave, mari Disc., p. 43; Pliny, N. H. 35, 46 : magno turbantibus aequora ventis, in sacris quidem etiam inter has e terra magnum alterius spectare opes hodie non murrinis crystal- laborem. — cubantem : alilinisve, sed fictilibus prolibatur ;
aut, gelidas hibernus aquas cum fuderit auster,
securum somnos imbre iuvante sequi !
qui maris et tristes ferre potest pluvias.
quam fleat ob nostras ulla puella vias.
ut domus hostiles praeferat exuvias :
47. For the rime cf. Intr. the Aquitanian expedition, proba$ 42, I (5) (6)
bly in 31 B.C., and the ordering of 48. imbre iuvante : cf. Hor. affairs in various eastern provinces Epod. 2, 28.
immediately thereafter (see Intr. 51. potius : belongs to both to 1, 3). He was the first to hold clauses. On the arrangement of the office of Praefectus Urbi, which words (synchysis) cf. 1, 3, 56 ; he soon resigned as inconsistent Hansen, p. 36.-smaragdi: "gems”; with his political opinions. As an for the collective use cf. Prop. 1, orator he achieved much fame and 14, 12; Ovid, Am. 3, 13, 25: vir- earned the praise of Cicero. He ginei crines auro gemmaque pre- wrote also poetry and historical muntur.
The literary coterie of 52. Cf. Prop. 3, 20, 4: tantine, which he was the center included ut lacrimes, Africa tota fuit? particularly Tibullus, Lygdamus,
53. terra . . . marique : cf. 1, Sulpicia, and other minor poets; 3, 56. Messalla is still away at war. and he was also the friend of
· Messalla : Marcus Valerius Mes- Horace, Asinius Pollio, and Ovid; salla Corvinus, b. 64 B.C., d. c. cf. 1, 3, 1 ; 5. 31; 7, 7, et passim ; 8 A.D., the patron of Tibullus, 2, I, 31-34 ; 5, 119. distinguished in public life and 54. praeferat: it was the cusliterary circles at Rome. In the tom to hang at the entrance of civil wars he was successively houses and temples the trophies allied with the fortunes of Brutus, won from vanquished enemies. Antony, and Octavian, and ren- Cf. Verg. Aen. 7, 183 sqq. : muldered the latter excellent service
taque praeterea sacris in postibus in the final struggle at Actium for arma, captivi pendent currus curthe mastery of the Roman world.
vaeque secures et cristae capitum After this he was intrusted with
et portarum ingentia claustra speseveral important military commis- culaque clipeique ereptaque rostra sions by Augustus, among them carinis; Prop. 3, 9, 26.