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The King's Flame now admitted of no longer Delay: Therefore he privately married Anna Bulleyn in Jan. before the Divorce was pronounced. Rapin charges Anna Bulleyn before her Marriage but with a fingle fingle Fault, namely, for yielding to the King before his Marriage with Catherine was nulled: "But it is, fays this fage "Hiftorian, very difficult for a young Lady of her "Rank to have Refolution enough to refift the Temp"tation of being a Queen, if fhe could be fo lawfully; "and it is likely the King made her believe fo. "It cannot however be faid, that she yielded to the "King's Defire before Marriage. He efpoufed her "the latest in Jan. and the was not brought to "bed till the 7th of Sept.* So that there is no"thing in that which can give Occasion for any Sufpicion."
and Cranmer is made Arch
In this Interval Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, died, upon which the King bestowed it on Dr. Cranmer, who was in Germany deeply employed in the King's Caufe. Rapin relates it was with great Difficulty Cranmer was prevailed upon to accept of this See, and much more to take the accustomed Oath to the Pope, which he did not do until he entered a private Proteftation against it: For, it feems, he was confirmed in it by proper Inftruments in the ufual Form; which Rapin admits was by no means one of Cranmer's commendable Actions. Be that as it will, he was confecrated on
The good old Wives and Civilians have generally admited, that a Woman ought to go nine Months with Child; but this more knowing Author has allowed Anna Bulleyn but a little above feven; which Inftance, and many others fhews us, that he had always by him
falfe Varnishes as well as Dirtdaubing Colours; which Materials, we hope, our prefent New Compilers of ENGLISH History will be very careful not to make ufe of; for certainly one stript of them is much wanted, and will be very acceptable to the Pub lick,
the 13th of March, though he was not put into Poffeffion of the Temporalities till the 29th of April.
Archb. Cranmer gives Sentence for the Divorce,
When Cranmer was once fixed in his See, the King was fully determined to end the Affair relating to the Divorce according to his own Liking; for that end he fo ordered, that his new Archbishop should demand his Leave to fummon Queen Catherine, to appear at Dunstable, in the Neighbourhood of the Place where the refided. * This the King readily granted, and his Grace gave her to the 20th of May to appear and anfwer for herself, which fhe not doing, on the 23d of the fame Month he gave Sentence, That the King's Marriage with Catherine was null, being contrary to the Laws of God.
And confirms On the 28th of the fame Month the the King's new Archbishop, by another Sentence, conMarriage. firmed the King's Marriage with Anna Bulleyn, and on the 1ft of June fhe was publickly. crowned Queen. Thus ended the Proceedings on this notorious Divorce. †
Rapin's Reflections upon
the Actors in the Divorce.
Rapin, in the Conclufion of the Account relating to the Divorce, fpeaks of the feveral Parties concerned in it; the King he first blames, yet endeavours to juftify him; the Pope he entirely condemns, as having acted upon a Principal of Self-intereft; Wolfey he calls a bold and daring Minifter; he gives the Emperor the Credit of acting the Part of a Man of Honour, out of Respect to his Aunt, without regard to Justice or Religion; Queen Catherine he alledges acted with Sincerity, though he believes she was guilty of Perjury;
+ It here appears, that a vast deal of Bufinefs was done in the Month of May; and, in a very few Years after, as much was
done in the fame Month of another Kind, which proved as fatal to Anna Bulleyn, as thefe Transactions were pleafing to her at this time.
jury; in order to make Anna Bulleyn's Caufe the better, he charges her but with one Fault, which we have before-mentioned; Cranmer he endeavours to acquit, as to what he tranfacted without the Authority of the Court of Rome, in regard he was inclined to be a Lutheran: The reft, who were concerned in this Affair, he avers acted only from worldly Views, without having any Religion in their Heads.
On the 7th of Sep. the Queen was brought Princefs
to Bed of a Princefs, named Elizabeth, who Elizabeth was afterwards the famous Queen of England born. of that Name; fhe fwayed the Scepter for many Years with fuch high Reputation, that her Name and Memory even at this Time is fo greatly revered, that the Day of her Acceffion to the Throne, the 17th of Nov. is annually celebrated. But she died without Iffue, and was ftiled, the Virgin Queen.
The Pope excommunicates
When the News of what had been tranfacted in England reached Rome, his Holiness was extreamly angry, and immediately nulled the Archbishop's Sentence, and publickly declared, that the King himself was liable to an Excommunication, unlefs, by Sept. then next, he restored the Cause to its former State, which not being done, it ended in the Pope's formally excommunicating the King.
In January this Year the Parliament The Parlia met, and they opened their Proceedings ment meets. in paffing an Act to repeal one made
in Henry the IVth's Time against Hereticks.
Another was paffed whereby it was enacted, "That "all Convocations for the future fhould be called "to meet by Virtue of the King's Writ only: That "the King fhould name 32 Perfons of both Houses "of Parliament, and a like Number from the Clergy, to examine the Canons and Conftitutions of "the Church, with Power to abrogate or confirm "fuch as they thought fit."
The Pope's Power demo lifhed by Act of Parlia ment.
Whilft the Parliament was thus employed the King received the News of the Pope's Sentence against him; upon which, the whole Nation, as Rapin fays, being tired of the Pope's Yoke, it was determined at once to reftrain that formidable Power, under which the Kingdom had fo long groaned. Be that as it will, it is certain, that foon after divers Acts* palled that abolished the Papal Authority in England.
On the 7th of Sept. Mr. Cromwell was made Mafter of the Jewel-office, and was greatly intrufted
*1. To confirm the Statute for abolishing the Annates, or First Fruits:
2. That the Pope fhall have nothing to do in nominating or prefenting of Bishops; but that, when a Bishoprick fhall be vacant, the King shall send to the Chapter a Conge d'Elire, and, in cafe the Election fhall not be over within twelve Days after the Licence, it fhall belong to the King to prefent: That the Bishop Elect fhall fwear Fealty to the King, and then be recommended by his Majefty to the Archbishop to be confecrated: That, if the Bishop elect, or Archbifhops shall refufe to obey the Contents of this Act, he or they fhall be liable to a Premunire. Moreover, all Perfons are exprefly forbid to apply to the Bishop of Rome for Bulls, Palls,
and the like.
3. Peters-pence, all Procurations, Delegations, Expeditions of Bulls, and Difpenfatives from the Court of Rome, were forbid, and the Archbishop of Ganter bury was fubilituted inftead thereof to grant the fame, as should
not be contrary to the Law, on Condition, that Part of the Money, from thence arifing, fhould be paid into the Exchequer: That all religious Houfes, exempt and not exempt, fhould be fubject to the Archbishop's Vifitation.
4. The King's Marriage with Catherine was declared null, void, and ineffective; and forbid, that any fhould ftile her other than Princess of Wales, or the Widow Dowager of Prince Arthur: At the fame Time the King's Marriage with Anna Bulleyn was declared valid, and the Succeffion of the Crown fettled upon their Iffue: That if any Perfon of what Quality foever should speak or write against the King's Marriage, he or the should be adjudged a Traitor to the King That all his Majefty's Subjects, without Diftinction, fhould be obliged to fwear to obferve and maintain the Contents of this Act: And therein was mentioned a Lift of the Marriages forbid by the Laws of God and Man; and that, if any fuck were then in being, they should be diffolved.
Sir Thomas hop Fisher bebeaded.
More and Bi
by the King; among thofe, who fell a the new Laws, wherein the King was declared Head of the Church, were Sir Thomas More and Bishop Fiber; but the putting them to Death for this Matter was severely cenfured beyond Sea, and the Lofs of them was greatly lamented by many in England.
Queen Catherine ended her Days the Beginning of this Year, and we leave our Reader to collect her Character from what we have faid before.
Queen Cathe rine's Death. 1536.
This Year a new Scene was opened that proved likewife fatal to thofe we are going to mention; for as the Sun, that often rifes moft gloriously, fets in a Cloud; in like Manner, Lady Anna had not been Queen above three Years and four Months, before the King fixed an amorous Eye upon the Lady Jane Seymour, and refolved to have her, and get rid of Anna : But a Divorce would not do, not having the Pretexts as in his former Marriage; therefore on Mayday, the King being at Greenwich, (where there was a folemn Juft, in which George Viscount Rochford, the Queen's Brother, was chief Challenger, and Harry Norris principal Defender) he fuddenly left the Place, which greatly furprized the Company; though fome fay, it was owing to the Queen's letting fall her Handkerchief, and its being taken up by one, fuppofed to be her Favourite, who wiped his Face therewith: However, as the King was gone, the Queen retired.
His Majefty, being arrived at Westminster, gave Orders in the first Place for fiezing the Queen's Brother and Norris, and they were committed to the Tower: Then the Queen was apprehended in her Barge paffing to London, and, as the Lords were carrying her towards the Tower, they informed her of the VOL. IV. Bbb