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4 Recapitu lation of the King's Ac


That Henry was a Bloody King the many Executions, he caufed to be made after he had difmiffed his moft prudent and humane Minifter, fully teftify. Even the Death of Empfon and Dudley, at the Beginning of his Reign, reflect Dishonour upon him, notwithstanding it was done by the Command of his Father, whose Coffers had been filled by their Iniquities. But far lefs Cause had he to put to Death Edmund de la Pole, who had been made Prifoner by Henry the VIIth, though Reasons of State might colour it. For the fame bad Reasons alfo was Margaret, Countess of Salifbury, Daughter to George Duke of Clarence, Brother to Edward the IVth, though feventy Years of Age, condemned without a Hearing, and beheaded; because, forfooth, there had been a Rebellion in Yorkshire, and the King thought they had a Respect for this aged Countefs, who was of the Blood Royal of the House of York. The like Kindness he also fhewed to the Marquis of Exeter, his firft Coufin on the Mother's Side, being the Son of Catherine, Daughter to King Edward the IVth; and it was obfervable of Henry, the longer he reigned the more cruel he grew, and the more Blood he fhed.

bis Cruelties.

To fum up all, in this King's Reign A Recital of there fell two Queens, two Cardinals, (for Cardinal Pole ftood condemned, though not apprehended) two Dukes, Marquifes, Earls, and Earl Sons 12, Barons and Knights 18, which could not but much irritate the temporal Nobility; of Bishops, Abbots, Priors, Monks, and Priests, no less than 77, which as much incenfed the Clergy against him;" and of the more Common Sorts, (fays Lord Herbert) "between one Religion and the other, "huge Multitudes." And, having offended his Roman Catholick Subjects by difowning the See of Rome, and his Proteftant Subjects by rejecting the Reformation, he was brought at laft to that unhappy Period to leave VOL. IV.



the Crown to a Child, whofe Condition was like to prove as uncertain under the Government of a Protector, as the Kingdom had latterly been under his, which, in cafe the Iffue of the young Prince failed, was to defcend to his Sifters fucceffively, of whose Legitimacy, Religion, and Title there were as many Scruples before they came to their Sovereignty, as their Father had conceived, in Point of Conscience, or Honour, before he parted from their Mothers. As no Man could measure his Happiness by his Greatness, fo neither can they take any Scantling of his Greatnefs by any Thing the World calls Happinefs. In fhort, Henry was in the latter Part of his Life as much hated, and feared, as he was in the first Part His Death and honoured, reverenced, and loved. On the 28th of Jan. 1547, he died, and was buried at Windfor.


His Character delineated.

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"To fay much of him (as an Anonymous Writer has it) "were to make you "furfeit; Sir Walter Rawleigh's Teftiof him is fufficient. If the Pictures and Patmony "terns of a mercilefs Prince were loft in the World, "they might all again be painted to the Life out "of the Story of this King. His vaft Expence of "Treasure and profufe Bloodfhed 'made this King"dom look with a ghaftly Face; and, to express him fully, this remains with him to everlafting, That "be never spared Man in his Anger, nor Woman in "bis Luft."







T is furprizing to find this Prince, though little favoured by Fortune, ill used by his own Mother, abandoned to imprudent Favourites, and betrayed by thofe, whom he honoured with his moft fecret Friendship, could fo gloriously refift the Emperor Charles, whofe Dominions were much larger than France, who had more Men and Money, was a greater Warrier, a very artful Politician, and ferved with Fidelity and Skill by his Generals and Minifters, and who was affifted, either by the King of England or other powerful Princes. Though we cannot help being of Opinion, if Henry had not took part with Francis, after the Battle of Pavia, pursuant to Wolfey's Advice, that Charles would have overturned the French Monarchy, and after that very likley might have totally destroyed the Liberties of Europe.

New League between Fran

cis and the P. of the Empire.

The most powerful Princes of the Empire this Year entered into a defenfive League against the Emperor, to which they defired the Acceffion of Francis, who not only engaged in it himself, but prevailed on Henry the VIIIth to accede thereto.


An Interview

and Francis.

In Confequence of this Treaty, Henry and Francis had an Interview at Bologn, between Henry near Calais, Oct. the 28th, when it was agreed, "That, in cafe the Turks "fhould attack Hungary, whilft the German Princes "fhould be engaged against the Emperor, they Ddd 2 "" would

"would raife and maintain a confiderable Army in Hungary at their common Expence.'



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The King this Year took a Journey Brittany to his into Brittany, when the States of the Kingdom. Country confented to unite that Dutchy

1532. as a Province to the Crown of France for ever, upon certain Conditions, after a Conference had been held on that Head.

It was observed about this Time, that, from the End of the Year 1528, to the Beginning of the Year 1534, the Seafons in France were fo exceedingly irregular, that they produced almoft a general Famine, and at last a Plague, by which one third of the People perished. Interview be- In October this Year the Pope in his tween the Pope Gallies arrived at Marseilles, and there and Francis, was magnificently entertained by the 1533. King, who upon this Occafion fhewed his ufual Generofity to the Cardinals; "And made the Beauty of his Mind (fays a French Writer) to outfhine the Luftre of his Gifts:" They parted the 22d of Nov. well fatisfied with each other, after the Pope had been pleased to difpofe of four Cardinal's Hats in Favour of Francis's Recommendation. King Henry very much follicited the King to break with the Pope, but Francis refused it, faying, I am a Friend to the Altar.

Who refuses to break with the Pope.


Enters into a


But ftill his Mind run upon maknew War with ing Conquefts in Italy, and therefore, Italy. turning his Eye upon Milan, raised a Pretence to quarrel with Duke Sforza; but, the Duke of Savoy denying him a Paffage through his Country, he drew a Storm upon himfelf; for King Francis immediately fent an Army to invade Savoy, under the Command of Admiral Brion,

See Vol. I. p. 104, 105,


This General was no fooner come into Savoy, but all the Places on this Side Mount Cenis opened their Gates to the French. The Duke, understanding that the Emperor was gone upon an Expedition to Tunis, endeavoured to ward off the Storm, (having not Troops fufficient to make Head against the French) by offering feveral Conceffions to them, which he at first refused to give, and they at this Time to accept of: And, what made the Duke's Affairs much worse, his People, being greatly diffatisfied with his Government, revolted and took part with the French. In this Diftrefs, as the French were overrunning his Country, he ordered the Pafs of Suze to be guarded, in hopes to ftop their Progrefs; but, it being refolved on too late, the French continued their March and came before Turin, which immediately furrendered, and the poor Duke was obliged to fly to Verceil.

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Chancellor dies.

On the 8th of July, Anthony Duprat, The French Cardinal Legate and Chancellor in France, died, "Much tormented, fays Mizeray, "with Remorfe of Confcience, as his Sighs and Speeches made manifeft; for, having obferved 66 no other Guide or Law but his own Intereft, and "the Paffion of his Sovereign, it was he that took "away the Election to Benefices, and the Privi

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leges of many Churches; it was he that pro"duced the Sale of Offices in Courts of Judicature, "and that taught them boldly to lay all Sorts of Impofitions on the Subjects.' And, we are forry to fay it, the fame bad Disposition has much prevailed in our own Country.


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His Poft of Chancellor was given to Anne du Bourg, who loft his Life, in the Year 1538, after a very odd Manner; being with the King, who made his Entrance into Laon, there was fuch a great Croud of Horfes that he was thrust off his Mule, and trod under foot, where he died,


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