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mean Original the King bad advanced him to so great Honour. But Cromwell's Crime was that of dalhing against the Rock on which two before had split ; the King, pretending more than ordinary Love for Queen Jane, had not fo toon provided himself with another Wife as he had been used to do; and Cromwell, willing to strengthen the Reformation, advised the King to marAnn of Cleve, ry Ann, the Siiter of the Duke of Cleve, the King's 4th which Marriage took at first, but, after Wife.

six Months Cohabitation, this Lady was 1540.

repudiated; and, instead of the Title of Queen, was forced to be contented with that of the King's adopted Sister. The Cause for the Divorce of this Lady was divertly spoken of, but three in particular forwarded it much : First, The King, having taken her unseen, found himself mistaken in her Beauty, Does not like

for, it seems, Nature in that respect had not been very bountiful to her. Se

condly, Some natural Defect in this Lady was a Bar to Enjoyinent, which seems probable from her own Conteisions ; for in a Letter, wherein she submits herself to the Judgment of the Parliament, she affirms, the King never knew her carnally. Thirdly, The King had another in his Eye, which he fancied better, who was the Lady Catherine Howard. Now Cromwell, having been the Promoter of the Match with tinn, and the King having a mind to Catherine, who, locking upon Cromwell as a Hindrance to her Advancement, became his Enemy, and persuaded the King to get rid of him ; and, though the

Crimes objected against him were caCromweil im. pital, yet, not being permitted to speak peached.

for himself, the Proceedings against him cannot but be thought extreamly rigorous. In short, the Accusations against him were chiefly for an Usurpation of Power, in setting at Liberty certain Persons not entitled to it; granting certain Licences, and making several Commisions in high Affairs,



without the King's Knowledge; of being an Heretick, and a Favourer of them ; but that the Head of the Church, the Vicegerent in spiritual Affairs, should be an Heretick seems very inconsistent : Though these were only pretended Crimes, to put the better Colour on the King's Injustice, his Mistress hated him, and the King resolved he should die; ac

And beheaded. cordingly he was beheaded on Tower-hill on the 28th of June, 1540: Dying with great Presence of Mind, professing himself upon the Scaffold a true Catholick Christian, which being a general Term, it is uncertain whether he meant of the Romißh or Reformed Communion. However, the King carried his Refentment no further ; for, before the End of the

· Year, he created Cromwell's Son a Lord, and restored his Father's Eftate to him. On the 30th of July six Priests were

More Execudrawn upon Hurdles to Smithfield, where three were burnt, being charged with Heresy; and the other three, being charged with Treason, were hanged, drawn and quartered.

Soon after the Lord Leonard Gray, who was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was recalled from thence, fent to the Tower, and the next Year was beheaded for Treason.

On the 4th of August no less than seven Persons were executed, for denying the King's Supremacy.

Blood and Luft went hand in hand; for, whilst these Executions were carrying on, the King Catherine married the Lady Catherine Howard, and Howard, the on the 8th of August she was publickly King's 5th shewed as Queen, which Honour she nei

Wife. ther enjoyed long; for, on the 12th of Executed for February, 1541, she was likewise beheaded Adultery. for Adultery, which she confessed.

So that the Reader may here observe, Some Reflecthat Catherine and Ann were the Ruin of

tions 02 what both Master and Servant; that in less than passed.


ten Years Henry had five Wives ; and, what is more remarkable, that Anna Bulleyn, who was the Ruin of Cardinal Wolsey, Cromwell's Master, was afterwards brought to the Block ; that Catherine Howard, who was the Ruin of Cromwell, met with the fame Fate, being accused, condemned, and executed for the same Crime, though perhaps not both equally guilty.

The Severities that had been shewn Another Insurrection.

to both Papists and Protestants raised a ge

neral Discontent throughout the Kingdom, which caused a Revolt in Yorkshire ; but it was foon quelled, and, Sir John Nevill, with several other Gentlemen and Yeoman, were executed at York.

But this did not satisfy the King, for Countess of Sa

he caused the aged Countess of Salisbury ered.

to be sent to the Tower, it being Crime fufficient for her to be of the House of York ; though she was attainted of Treason, yet beheaded without

lisbury butch

being heard.

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Notwithstanding all this the King's An odd AEt of Parliament. Mind still run upon marrying again ; but, 1542.

as he had such bad Luck with his Wives,

the Parliament took the same into Consideration ; and, to prevent any more such Disasters, they caused it to be enacted, That, if the King “ should happen to marry a Woman that had been be“ fore incontinent, if the concealed the fame, it should be deemed High Treason.” But this Act, however well intended, did the King a Diskindness; for (fo few chose

to run the Hazard of entering into the The Ladies highly displea

Bands of Matrimony with him, who had fed at it. got such a Knack of dissolving them,

knowing in what a slippery State they must be in, if he, after receiving them to his Bed, should, through any Mistake, declare them no Maids) our Ladies at home refused his Courtship ; however, the King wanting a Wife, he was pleased to look A


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broad for one this Time ; for which Purpose he sent an Ambassador to demand the Princess

A foreign Christiana, * Sister to the King of Den- Princess" remark, in Marriage, and withal writ her fuses the a Letter with his own

own Hand. The King's CourtPrincess answered the Letter, wherein jhip. “ she thanked the King for the Honour designed her, " which she would gladly have accepted, had she “ been so happy as to have had two Heads ; but, as " she had but one, she hoped the King would ex“ cuse her for declining the Honour, being willing

to keep that on her Shoulders.” The King, finding himself disappointed A Widow,bis

A Abroad, fixed at last upon a Widow at

6th Wife. Home, the Lady Catherine Parr, who being

1543 indeed a Lady of Integrity and W and of Maturity of Years, he lived after Marriage well with her in Appearance ; but, towards the End of the King's Life, she was in great Danger of losing hers; not for Adultery, but for a Crime he used to punish as severely, Heresy, of which she

She is impeachwas much suspected by Stephen Gardi- ed for Heresy. ner, and others of the same Kidney ; in which, by the King's Consent, they had proceeded so far against the Queen, as to procure a Warrant to carry her to the Tower ; but her prudent Submission to the King took off the Edge of his Anger, and thereby not only prevented the Edge of the Ax coming too near her, but defeated the Designs of her Enemies. These Years Henry continued to spend his

1544. Time in hanging Papists and burning Prote

1545. stants that did not comply with the Acts and Orders he caused to be made for supporting his violent Measures. About this Time the King was employed in carry


* Whofe Picture is still in the Royal Palace at Hampton-court.

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ing on a War both against France and Scotland; but
he foon clapt up a Peace with both Nations.
The Duke of

The Year 1546 was ushered in with Norfolk and spilling more Blood, and the Duke of Norhis Son in Cu- folk, one of Wolsey's most inveterate Eneftody.

mies, now felt the Effects of his Master's reforming Spirit ; for he was committed to the Tower, as well as his Son, the most learned and noble Earl of Surry, who was tried and convicted of what was called Treason in those Times, and, fome Days before the King's Death, was beheaded, as would likewise have been the Father, had not that Exit prevented it.

Burnet, and other Authors have indeed talked of Wolsey's abject Behaviour on his Disgrace; but, give us Leave to say, no Man could behave with a meaner Submislion than the Duke of Norfolk did upon his being sent to the Tower; for Proof of which fee Lord Herbert's History, in which is likewise the following among many other Confessions.

I Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, do confess and acknowledge myself moft untruly, and contrary to my Oath and Allegiance, to have offended the King's most excellent Majesty in the disclosing and opening of his privy Letters, and Counsels, at divers and sundry Times, to divers and fundry Persons, to the great Peril of his Highness, and disappointing of his most prudent and royal Affairs.

T. N.

Could as much be ever found against Wolsey? If a Soldier behaved thus under Misfortunes, why should we wonder at a faithful Minister's being uneasy, when his ungrateful Master was about to deliver him over to the Mercy of his Enemies ?

The Duke of Suffolk, it is true, by his complying with the King in all his Humours, had the good Fortune to die in his Bed.


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