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upon Cardinal Wolfey; (though, from the Account of the whole Matter, it appears the Cardinal was very fincere in the King's Bufinefs, and profecuted the Divorce with all the Heartinefs and Application imaginable :) Yet his Inclination was fo ftrongly fixed upon Mrs. Bulleyn, that he could not help refenting the Pope's Collufion to the higheft Degree, though his Wrath-like Thunder fell firft on Cardinal Wolfey, who was nearest his Elbow, and might now well cry out with the Comedian,
Jove, and ye Gods! how hard a Thing
at a ftand.
This great Controverfy being at a Stand in England the disappointed Party gazed about, unapprehenfive of the Iffue, nor could any one guess, whether or no his Majefty defigned to answer the Appeal. However, by fending Sir Edward Horne and Dr. Bonner to Rome, he made a Shew as if he would; though they did not carry themselves, as fome Hiftorians fay, as if they had any Inftructions from their Master to tender an express Submiffion to the Confiftorial Court, where the King had been cited to make his Appearance; but his Agents objected against doing it in Perfon, which the Pope agreed to wave, provided he would fend his Proctors. New Difficulties being started every Day concerning the Manner of the Trial, and the Court of Rome not being willing that others fhould prefcribe Rules to them, little or no Progress was made in the Affair ; but, on the contrary, both Parties were fecuring their Outworks, and studying how to defend themselves in Cafe of an Attack: And as the Pope by his Brief had forbidden the King to take another Woman for his Wife without License from the Holy See, fo the King published an Order, that no Decree coming Ii 2 from
from Rome fhould be received in England. This looked like declaring War, or at least it was a manifeft Token of a violent Exafperation, which difcovered itself by the Treatment Queen Catherine met with immediately after, when she was ordered to withdraw to fome of the King's Manor-houses, that her Prefence might not influence the People and caufe a Difturbance." And to countenance the putting her "under Restraint, as Echard fays, a formal Complaint was made against her, that the favoured fome who defigned to deftroy the King and the Cardinal : "That fhe had carried herfelf very difobligingly to "the King, and ufed many indirect Arts to render "herself popular: That the King was in Danger of "his Life by her Means, and therefore he could no longer keep her Company, either as to Bed or "Table. But fhe was a Woman of fuch Refolu"tion and Conftancy, that no Threatnings could in"timidate her."
As the Court was broke up, the King next was advised, as many Authors affirm, to fend Abroad, in order to obtain the Subfcriptions of fuch learned Men he could draw in to favour his Caufe. However that was not immediately put in Execution; for the King's Mind, upon the Breaking up of the Court was fo full of troublefome Thoughts, that it made him uncertain which Way to determine. In this Dilemna, Hell, Stow, Rapin, and Burnet affirm, he refolved upon a Progrefs into the Country, hoping thereby to difpel his Melancholy.
The King Sets For that End he fet out attended by out on a Pro- his royal Retinue, and took up his grefs. Lodgings the firft Night at Waltham, and, as one Houfe was not fufficient to entertain his whole Court, there were feveral of them quartered at the neighbouring Gentlemen's Houfes, particularly Mr. Secretary Gardiner and Dr. Fox at one Mr.
Creffy's At Supper the Coverfation run upon the Divorce, and, the Mafter of the Houfe having highly commended Cranmer, * (who at this Time had committed to his Care, the Tuition of two of Mr. Creffy's Sons) to Fox and Gardiner, for a Man of Learning, they defired him to give his Opinion on that Subject, which he at firft modeftly declined; but they preffed him fo much that he could not excufe himself: Therefore, after they had ftated the Queftion, Cranmer said, "He faw no better Way to extricate the King out "of his Difficulties, than to procure in Writing the "Opinions of all the Universities in Europe, and of "the moft eminent Divines and Civilians; that then "the Learned would judge Julius the IId's Difpenfa"tion either fufficient or invalid; if the first, the King's "Confcience would have Reason to be eafy; if the fecond, the Pope would never venture to pafs Sentence contrary to the Opinion of all the learned "and able Men in Christendom."
Fox and Gardiner relifhed this Advice, and imparted it to the King, who, immediately taking the Author's Meaning, cried out in a Tranfport of Joy, That he had got the right Sow by the Ear; an Expreffion
*Thomas Cranmer was born at Arflochton in Nottinghamshire, immediately derived from that antient Family, of Cranmer-hall in Lincolnshire. He was bred at Jefus College, where he was Fellow, and highly efteemed for his Learning and other excellent Qualifications, infomuch, that Cardinal Wolfey, hearing of his Fame, was as defirous to tranfplant him for an Ornament to Oxford, as Bishop Fisher was to detain him in Cambridge, because he was eminent for the Arts, more especially for Divinity, and most of all for his Sobriety, Temperance, Meeknefs, Difcre
tion, Moderation, and a grave Refolution, equally above the Frowns or Smiles of Fortune; but he, efpoufing a Wife, quitted his Fellowship, left the College, and retired to Buckingham-house, where he at once prepared himself and others for publick Employments, and accordingly was recommended to King Henry the VIIIth, as appears above: Thus much for his Original. It is faid, Dr. Cranmer, an eminent Phyfician at Kingston in Surry, and Mr. Cranmer, a Banker in Fleet-fireet, London, are defcended from a Branch of this noble and antient Family.
preffion which fhewed more the King's Extacy than his Gentility: But as Cranmer well explained what he had but just hinted at Table, it so gained the King's Efteem, that from that Moment he was ordered to follow the Court.
As Wolfey did not fet out with the Court, there are feveral Letters in the Exchequer Record-office, from Gardiner to Wolfey, couched in the moft refpectful Terms, giving him an Account of his Majefty's Progrefs, and particularly Gardiner tells Wolfey, in one of them dated from Waltham, that the King was very merry, which we prefume was owing to the Advice that was given him by Cranmer.
Commifioners Sent to foreign Univerfities.
After Matters were fettled in refpect to the Steps that were neceffary to be taken upon Cranmer's Advice, Commiffioners were immediately dispatched to feveral foreign Univerfities, with the State of the King's Cafe, who fo well executed the Truft repofed in them, that they procured in Writing the Opinion of feveral of those Universities, befides that of many great Lawyers, That the King's Marriage was unlawful, which different Certificates are to be met with at large in Rymer's Fadera, Burnet, Speed, and other Authors.
Sleaden upon this Occafion remarks, "That the foreign Universities, and particularly that of Paris, "were bribed for the King."
In the Year 1532, there was a Book published at Lunenberg, intitled, A Confutation of the Cenfures of the University, printed with the King's Licenfe in England. This Book, now in the Bodleian Library, informs us, that the University of Paris was equally divided, as many being against as for the Divorce; and that some Members of that Body published Difcourfes against the other Party, who gave their Opinion for the King:
This Author wrote on the Queen's Side, and dedicated his Book to the then Emperor's Ambaffador in England.
What paffed at Home, previous to the two Univerfities giving their Opinion relating to the Divorce, Dr. Fiddes relates, and fully fhews, that it was with great Difficulty the Court obtained their favourable Sentiments.
tion of our
Bishop Burnet, in his Account relating to the Determination of our two Univerfities concerning the King's Marriage, taxes Mr. Wood with being too credulous, and that he drew his Information from Saunders, an exafperated Writer of the Church of Rome: But Mr. Collier undertakes to juftify Mr. Wood's Account from I ord Herbert's Records, which plainly make it appear, that the King threatned the University, and that their Statutes were violated by excluding many who had a Right to vote; for the Hiftorians agree, "That the King fent Dr. Longland, his Confeffor, to procure
"their Certificate in Favour of his Divorce from Cathe"rine: That in the Doctor's Inftructions the King
joined Entreaties and Threats, to bring the Univer"fity to declare in his Favour; but their Chancellor, "Warham, advises them to follow the Truth: That one "Part of the University was for complying with the "King's Defire, whilst the other (the Artists, or Regent Masters) were of the contrary Opinion: That, notwithstanding all the King's Threats, he could not "obtain what he fo earneftly desired, until the latter were excluded, although by the Statutes nothing "could be done without them." The Substance of all which is confirmed by the King's Letter to the Regents or Artifts, wherein he fays, "That pro"vided they held on in their Obftinacy, and gave "their Sovereign any farther Trouble, they fhould quickly be made fenfible of the ill Confequence, "and understand it was not their beft Way to pro