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upon Cardinal Wolley ; (though, from the Account of the whole Matter, it appears the Cardinal was very sincere in the King's Business, and prosecuted the Divorce with all the Heartiness and Application imaginable :) Yet his Inclination was so strongly fixed upon Mrs. Bulleyn, that he could not help resenting the Pope's Collusion to the highest Degree, though his Wrath-like Thunder fell first on Cardinal Wolsey, who was nearest his Elbow, and might now well cry out with the Comedian,
Jove, and ye Gods ! how hard a Thing
This great Controversy being at a Stand Both Parties in England the disappointed Party gazed
at a fand. about, unapprehensive of the Iflue, nor could any one guess, whether or no his Majesty designed to answer the Appeal. However, by sending Sir Edward Horne and Dr. Bonner to Rome, he made a Shew as if he would ; though they did not carry themselves, as some Historians say, as if they had any Instructions from their Master to tender an express Submission to the Confiftorial Court, where the King had been cited to make his Appearance; but his Agents objected against doing it in Person, which the Pope agreed to wave, provided he would send his Proctors. New Difficulties being started every Day concerning the Manner of the Trial, and the Court of Rome not being willing that others should prescribe Rules to them, little or no Progress was made in the Affair ; but, on the contrary, both Parties were securing their Outworks, and studying how to defend themselves in Case of an Attack : And as the Pope by his Brief had forbidden the King to take another Woman for his Wife without License from the Holy See, so the King published an Order, that no Decree coming li 2
from Rome should be received in England. This looked like declaring War, or at least it was a manifest Token of a violent Exasperation, which discovered itself by the Treatment Queen Catherine met with immediately after, when she was ordered to withdraw to some of the King's Manor-houses, that her Presence might not influence the People and cause a Disturbance. “ And to countenance the putting her “ under Restraint, as Echard says, a formal Complaint
was made against her, that she favoured some who designed to destroy the King and the Cardinal :
That she had carried herself very disobligingly to " the King, and used many indirect Arts to render « herself popular : That the King was in Danger of “ his Life by her Means, and therefore he could no
longer keep her Company, either as to Bed or “ Table. But she was a Woman of such Refolu
tion and Constancy, that no Threatnings could inus timidate her.”
As the Court was broke up, the King next was advised, as many Authors affirm, to send Abroad, in order to obtain the Subscriptions of such learned Men he could draw in to favour his Caufe. However that was not immediately put in Execution ; for
; the King's Mind, upon the Breaking up of the Court was so full of troublesome Thoughts, that it made him uncertain which Way to determine. In this Dilemna, Hell, Stow, Rapin, and Burnet affirm, he refolved upon a Progress into the Country, hoping thereby to dispel his Melancholy. The King sets
For that End he set out attended by out on a Pro- his royal Retinue, and took up his grefs.
Lodgings the first Night at Waltham, and, as one House was not sufficient to entertain his whole Court, there were several of them quartered at the neighbouring Gentlemen's Houses, particularly Mr. Secretary Gardiner and Dr. Fox at one Mr.
Crelly's : At Supper the Coversation run upon the Divorce, and, the Master of the House having highly commended Cranmer, * (who at this Time had committed to his Care, the Tuition of two of Mr. Cressy's Sons) to Fox and Gardiner, for a Man of Learning, they desired him to give his Opinion on that Subject, which he at first modestly declined ; but they presled him so much that he could not excuse himself: Therefore, after they had stated the Question, Cranmer said, “ He saw no better way to extricate the King out “ of his Difficulties, than to procure in Writing the • Opinions of all the Universities in Europe, and of “ the most eminent Divines and Civilians; that then “ the Learned would judge Julius the Ild's Dispensa“ tion either sufficient or invalid ; if the first, the King's 6 Conscience would have Reason to be easy; if the
fecond, the Pope would never venture to pass Sen
tence contrary to the Opinion of all the learned 6 and able Men in Christendom.
Fox and Gardiner relished this Advice, and imparted it to the King, who, immediately taking the Author's Meaning, cried out in a Transport of Joy, That be had got the right Sow by the Ear ;
pression Thomas Cranmer was born at tion, Moderation, and a grave Arflochton in Nottinghamshire, im- Resolution, equally above the mediately derived from that an- Frowns or Smiles of Fortune ; tient Family, of Cranmer-hall in but he, espoufing a Wife, quitLincolnshire. He was bred at ted his Fellowship, left the ColJesus College, where he was lege, and retired to BuckingFellow, and highly esteemed for ham-house, where he at once prehis Learning and other excellent pared himself and others for pubQualifications, insomuch, that lick Employments, and accord. Cardinal Wolfey, hearing of his ingly was recommended to King Fame, was as desirous to transplant Henry the VIIIth, as appears ahim for an Ornament to Oxford, bove: Thus much for his Origias Bishop Fisher was to detain nal.--. It is said, Dr. Cranmer, an him in Cambridge, because he eminent Physician at Kingston in was eminent for the Arts, more Surry, and Mr. Cranmer, a Banespecially for Divinity, and ker in Fleet-street, London, are most of all for his Sobriety, descended from a Branch of Temperance, Meekness, Discre- this noble and antient Family,
preffion which shewed more the King's Extacy than his Gentility : But as Cranmer well explained what he had but juit hinted at Table, it fo gained the King's Esteem, that from that Moment he was ordered to follow the Court.
As Wolsey did not set out with the Court, there are several Letters in the Exchequer Record-office, from Gardiner to Wolsey, couched in the most respectful Terms, giving him an Account of his Majesty's Progress, and particularly Gardiner tells Wolsey, in one of them dated from Waltham, that the King was very merry, which we presume was owing to the Advice that was given him by Cranmer.
After Matters were settled in respect Commissioners
to the Steps that were necessary to be fent to foreign taken upon
Cranmer's Advice, CommisUniversities.
, sioners were immediately dispatched to several foreign Universities, with the State of the King's Case, who fo well executed the Trust reposed in them, that they procured in Writing the Opinion of several of those Universities, besides that of many great Lawyers, That the King's Marriage was unlaceful, which different Certificates are to be met with at large in Rymer's Fædera, Burnet, Speed, and other Authors. Sleaden upon this Occasion remarks, “ That the
, “ foreign Universities, and particularly that of Paris, 4
were bribed for the King."
In the Year 1532, there was a Book published at Lunenberg, intitled, A Confutation of the Cenfures of the University, printed with the King's License in England. This Book, now in the Bodleian Library, informs us, that the University of Paris was equally divided, as many being against as for the Divorce; and that some Members of that Body published Discourses against the other Party, who gave their Opinion for the King:
This Author wrote on the Queen's Side, and dedicated his Book to the then Emperor's Ambassador in England.
What passed at Home, previous to the two Universities giving their Opinion relating to the Divorce, Dr. Fiddes relates, and fully shews, that it was with great Difficulty the Court obtained their favourable Sentiments. Bishop Burnet, in his Account relating The Refolu
tion of our to the Determination of our two Universities concerning the King's Marriage, taxes Mr. Wood with being too credulous, and that he drew his Information from Saunders, an exasperated Writer of the Church of Rome : But Mr. Collier undertakes to justify Mr. Wood's Account from I ord Herbert's Records, which plainly make it appear, that the King threatned the University, and that their Statutes were violated by excluding many who had a Right to vote; for the Historians agree, “That the
King sent Dr. Longland, his Confessor, to procure “ their Certificate in Favour of his Divorce from Cathe“ rine : That in the Doctor's Instructions the King
joined Entreaties and Threats, to bring the University to declare in his Favour; but their Chancellor,
Warham, advises them to follow the Truth: That one “ Part of the University was for complying with the “King's Desire, whilst the other (the Artists, or Re
gent Masters) were of the contrary Opinion: That, “ notwithstanding all the King's Threats, he could not “ obtain what he so earnestly desired, until the latter “ were excluded, although by the Statutes nothing « could be done without them.” The Substance of all which is confirmed by the King's Letter to the Regents or Artists, wherein he says, “ That pro
, “ vided they held on in their Obstinacy, and gave " their Sovereign any farther Trouble, they should “ quickly be made sensible of the ill Consequence, « and understand it was not their best Way to pro