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Letter to

So that his Holiness, forgetting the many Favours he had received from Henry, as well as his own great Acknowledgments and Promises, ventures the breaking with the King, rather than lose the Advantage proposed by his new Alliance with the Emperor, signed an Avocation of the Cause, and forbid all further Proceedings in England under great Penalties.

Our Ambassadors upon this extraordinary News let his Holiness know, that, as the King's Request had been denied, their Mafter would apply other Remedies, which did not a little startle him; and therefore, as he knew it would possibly be attended with ill Consequences in respect to his spiritual Affairs, he endeavoured to shew, by an extenuating Letter to the Cardinal, that he was dragged into this

The Pope's Expedient, in which he tells him, “ How

Wolfey. " much he was affected at the Neceflity “ of the Juncture : That nothing was more averse to “ his Inclination, than the Avocation of the Cause : “ That he was so sensible of the King's Merit and “ kind Offices, that nothing but mere Justice could “ have forced him to have done any thing against his “ Highness's Inclination :" And desires the Cardinal to represent his Regret to the King, to put the best Complexion upon the Matter he could, to use his Interest to continue him in his customary Friendship and Esteem to the Apoftolick See, and to acquaint his Highness, that he had the fame Regard for him as formerly.

Before the Avocation was signed at Rome, the Pope instructed Campeius, unknown to Wolsey, to draw out the Matter at Length, and the Cardinal managed the Business with Dexterity enough.

The King, being perfectly acquainted The Legatine with the Pope's Designs, and hopeless of Court fits for the Queen's Consent, haftened the Com- the last Time. missioners to forward the Divorce, which Campeius accordingly did with that Dispatch, that only the definitive VOL. IV.

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Sentence was now wanting, for giving which a solemn Day was appointed, Sept. 28, which caused many of the Nobility, and a Multitude of the Commonalty to repair to the Court, expecting that Judgment would have been given for the King; and he himself, conceiving some Hopes of the Legates good Intent towards him, caused a Seat to be placed for him behind the Hangings, where, without being seen, he might conveniently hear what passed in Court. The Cardinal being feated, the King's Advocates earnestly required, that Sentence might be given on their Side. Upon which Campeius, standing up as well as he could for the Gout, informed them, that his Holiness had reserved the further Hearing of the Cause to himself, and therefore declared their Commission to be difsolved : But before this he made the Speech that Cavendish has already recited, as well as what passed on the Duke of Suffolk’s insulting Cardinai Wolsey. A bad Retaliation this, for doing him two such signal Services, the saving of his Life, and bringing about his grand Marriage. See Vol. Ild, p. 257, &c.

In Consequence of what Campeius had declared at the Clofe of the Legatine Court, Pope Clement the VIIth issued forth a Brief of Avocation of the Cause from England to the Consistorial Court at Rome, where Paulus Capisanus, Master of the Rolls, was to preside under his Holiness : And it having been signified, by the Queen's Party, that the King of England would not answer to any such Appeal, the Brief takes notice of this Rumour, and threatens the King with Excommunication, if he should presume to proceed to another Marriage, before the Cause was decided in the Consistorial Court

. This Brief by particular Directions was fixed upon the great Church-doors at Bruges, Tournay, and Dunkirk, inasmuch as no one durft take the Liberty of fixing it up any where in England.

The Cause being ordered to Rome, and the King's Expectation baulked, he threw his Disappointment

upon

upon Cardinal Wolsey'; (though, from the Account of the whole Matter, it appears the Cardinal was very sincere in the King's Business, and prosecuted the Divorce with all the Heartiness and Application imaginable :) Yet his Inclination was so strongly fixed upon Mrs. Bulleyn, that he could not help resenting the Pope's Collusion to the highest Degree, though his Wrath-like Thunder fell first on Cardinal Wolsey, who was nearest his Elbow, and might now well cry out with the Comedian,

Jove, and ye Gods ! how hard a Thing
It is to serve a raging King ?

This great Controversy being at a Stand Both Parties in England the disappointed Party gazed

at a stand. about, unapprehensive of the Issue, nor could any one guess, whether or no his Majesty designed to answer the Appeal. However, by sending Sir Edward Horne and Dr. Bonner to Rome, he made a Shew as if he would ; though they did not carry themselves, as fome Historians say, as if they had any Instructions from their Master to tender an express Submission to the Confiftorial Court, where the King had been cited to make his Appearance; but his Agents objected against doing it in Person, which the Pope agreed to wave, provided he would send his Proctors. New Difficulties being started every Day concerning the Manner of the Trial, and the Court of Rone not being willing that others should prescribe Rules to them, little or no Progress was made in the Affair ; but, on the contrary, both Parties were securing their Outworks, and studying how to defend themselves in Case of an Attack : And as the Pope by his Brief had forbidden the King to take another Woman for his Wife without License from the Holy See, lo the King published an Order, that no Decree coming

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from Rome should be received in England. This looked like declaring War, or at least it was a manifest Token of a violent Exasperation, which discovered itself by the Treatment Queen Catherine met with immediately after, when she was ordered to withdraw to fome of the King's Manor-houses, that her Presence might not influence the People and cause a Disturbance. “ And to countenance the putting her “ under Reitraint, as Echard says, a formal Complaint “ was made against her, that the favoured some who “ designed to destroy the King and the Cardinal : “ That she had carried herself very disobligingly to " the King, and used many indirect Arts to render " herself popular : That the King was in Danger of “ his Life by her Means, and therefore he could no

longer keep her Company, either as to Bed or

Table. But she was a Woman of such Refolu“ tion and Constancy, that no Threatnings could inC6 timidate her."

As the Court was broke up, the King next was advised, as many Authors affirm, to send Abroad, in order to obtain the Subscriptions of such learned Men he could draw in to favour his Caufe. However that was not immediately put in Execution; for the King's Mind, upon the Breaking up of the Court was so full of troublesome Thoughts, that it made him uncertain which Way to determine. In this Dilemna, Hall, Stow, Rapin, and Burnet affirm, he resolved upon a Progrels into the Country, hoping thereby to dispel his Melancholy. The King sets

For that End he set out attended by

his royal Retinue, and took up his grefs. Lodgings the first Night at Waltham, and, as one House was not sufficient to entertain his whole Court, there were several of them quartered at the neighbouring Gentlemen's Houses, particularly Mr. Secretary Gardiner and Dr. Fox at one Mr.

Cresly's :

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Cresly's : At Supper the Coversation run upon the Divorce, and, the Mafter of the House having highly commended Cranmer, * (who at this Time had committed to his Care, the Tuition of two of Mr. Cressy's Sons) to Fox and Gardiner, for a Man of Learning, they desired him to give his Opinion on that Subject, which he at first modestly declined; but they pressed him so much that he could not excuse himself: Therefore, after they had stated the Question, Cranmer said, “ He saw no better way to extricate the King out 6 of his Difficulties, than to procure in Writing the

Opinions of all the Universities in Europe, and of “ the most eminent Divines and Civilians, that then “ the Learned would judge Julius the Ild's Dispensa“ tion either sufficient or invalid ; if the first, the King's " Conscience would have Reason to be easy; if the “ fecond, the Pope would never venture to pass Sen

tence contrary to the Opinion of all the learned " and able Men in Christendom.

Fox and Gardiner relished this Advice, and imparted it to the King, who, immediately taking the Author's Meaning, cried out in a Transport of Joy, That be had got the right Sow by the Ear ; an Ex

pression * Thomas Cranmer was born at tion, Moderation, and a grave Arflochton in Nottinghamshire, im- Resolution, equally above the mediately derived from that an- Frowns or Smiles of Fortune ; tient Family, of Cranmer-hall in but he, espouting a Wife, quitLincolnshire. He was bred at ted his Fellowship, left the ColJesus College, where he was lege, and retired to BuckingFellow, and highly esteemed for ham-house, where he at once prehis Learning and other excellent pared himself and others for pubQualifications, insomuch, that lick Employments, and accord. Cardinal Wolsey, hearing of his ingly was recommended to King Fame, was as desirous to transplant Henry the VIIIth, as appears ahim for an Ornament to Oxford, bove: Thus much for his Origias Bishop Fisher was to detain nal.--. It is said, Dr. Cranmer, an him in Cambridge, because he eminent Physician at Kingston in was eminent for the Arts, more Surry, and Mr. Cranmer, a Banespecially for Divinity, and ker in Fleet-street, London, are most of all for his Sobriety, descended from a Branch of Temperance, Meekness, Discre- this noble and antient Family,

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