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“ conferred by Christ on the Pope, can deny that his “ Holiness inay dispense, for some arduous Cause, , " with one to take to wife the Relict of his deceased “ Brother by whom he had no issue. However, “ should I allow the Arguments on both sides to be of “ equal Force, and none to out-weigh the other, but to “ stand as it were suspended in a Ballance, that both
might be easily solved, yet what would always oblige me to be more inclined to acquiesce to the Pope's
Determination, is, that both Parties attribute the Ful“ ness of his Highness's Power, an Authority for “ interpreting the ambiguous Passages of Scripture, " having firlt heard the Opinions of Divines and " Civilians therein ; otherwise CHRIST would in vain “ have said to him, Whatever ye bind on Earth shall “ be bound in Heaven. Therefore, since it has plainly “ appeared, that the Pope has more than once de" clared, That it was lawful, in the aforesaid Cafe, to
grant a Dispensation to the second Brother, this " alone, if no further Motives had been advanced, “ but were equal in their Allegations, as I have “ faid, would unavoidably engage my Assent.
“ But now, when I plainly see the Party which to support the Pope's Authority in this Affair, to “ have more efficacious Reasons on their Side ; be“ fides, when I reflect with what Words and how " amply the Power was conferred by Christ on “ the Pope ; and lastly, when I learn from the best “ of Testimonies, that such Dispensation was often “ recommended to take effect, I can no longer have
any Scruple with regard to the Authority in Question, but that it is lawful for the Pope to
dispence with one Brother to take to wife the Wi“ dow of a deceased Brother, by whom he had no Issue.
“ Your Highness has my Thoughts on this Affair « in a few Words, to whom I wish long Life, in Prosperity and Safety.
« Jo. ROCHESTER."
But the main Matter, says the Church Historian,
was to know how the See of Rome stood affected, " the Pope being regarded and applied to by all con
cerned, as the dernier Resort of the Controversy :
Wherefore Dr. Knight, Secretary of State, and Stephen “ Gardiner, the Cardinal's Secretary, were dispatched
to make Interest with the Pope, to obtain what the King had now so much at heart , besides, his Ma
jesty had other very able Persons, both at Home and “ Abroad, to manage the Cause in Italy, particularly “
Sir Gregory Cassali, * (who had great Power with the “ Court of Rome, was well skilled in Affairs, and, “ though a Foreigner, entirely in the King's Interest) “ and Mr. Peter Vannes. These received Instruc
. “ tions from Cardinal Wolsey, who was indefatigable “ in promoting every Thing that was agreeable to his « Prince.”
But, notwithstanding what this learned Author has been pleased to affert, it will appear in the Sequel of this History, that the Cardinal was so far from coming up in every Point to his Master's Desire, that he never gave any definitive Judgment in this Affair, though no one will doubt, if he had waved his own Opinion, it was in his Power.
On the other hand the Queen was not backward in acquainting the Emperor with the whole Proceedings, sending an express Messenger to him, in order that he might take care of her Interest at the Court of Rome.
Fox and Gardiner, having their Instructions, set forward for the Court of Romne, and on their way thither sent and received divers Dispatches from his Eminence, relating to the Matters under their Care, as may be seen in the Exchequer Record-office. Being ar
* The Family of the Casali, gents in Italy, and other places, being three Brothers, were enter- who discharged their Trults with tained by the King as his A. great Honour.
rived at Rome, they delivered their Credentials, which were well received by his Holiness, who, to expedite their business, shortly after appointed Cardinal Campeius to go over into England, that he, in Conjunction with Cardinal Wolsey, might fit in Judgment on the Dispute about the Divorce.
After Campeius was furnished with proper Instructions, he set out from Rome, in the Month of July, 1528, and in Oetober following arrived in London, being six or seven Months after he was appointed Legate; and, whilst he was upon the Road, the Emperor's Ministers raised a fresh Obstacle against the Divorce.
Before the Legatine Court fat in England, Dr. Knight, Secretary of State, Mr. Stephen Gardiner, and Dr. Fox returned to England, having left the Business relating to the Divorce, to be transacted at Rome by Sir Gregory Casali, and Mr. Peter Vannes, the King's Ambassador there: And his Majesty was so well pleased with Gardiner and Fox's Behaviour at Rome, that he took them both into his Service, and made Steppen one of his Secretaries ; but buth attended him wherever he refided.
The renowned Shakespear gives us this Scene lative to the Steps taken previous to the Divorce.
* Enter the Lord Chamberlain, the Dukes of Norfolk and
Cham. I left him private,
Nor. What's the Cause ?
Cham. It seems the Marriage with his Brother's Wife
Suff. No; his Conscience
Nor. 'Tis so ;
As soon as the News of Campeius's Arrival in England was known at London, great Preparations were
Suff. Pray God he do! he'll never know himself else.
Nor. How holily he works in all his Business,
Cham. Heav'n keep me from such Counse!! 'tis moit true,
Nor. We had need pray, and heartily, for Deliverance ;
Nor. Let's in ;
Cham. Excuse me,
* Yet he acknowledges in a Letter, that his chief Friend, nekt the King, was the Cardinal. See our IId Vol. p. 258.
made to receive him ; but, being much afflicted with the Gout, he chose to come to Town privately ; fo
You'll find it a moft unfit Time to disturb him :
[Exit Lord Chamberlain.
King. Who's there, I say? how dare you thrust yourselves
Nor. A gracious King, that pardons all Offences
King. Ye are too bold !
Times of Business :
Enter Wolsey, and Campeius, the Pope's Legate, with a Come
Wol. Sir, you cannot:
King. We are busy ; go.
Suff. Not to speak of:
Nor. If it do,
[Exeunt Norfolk and Suffolk. Wol
. Your Grace has given a President of Wisdom