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“ Arrival in England he waited on the King at Hamp.

ton-court, before he spoke with the Cardinal, and “ sewed him the Leiter, with three others, writ with “ the Cardinal's own Hand, whereby he gave him “ express Orders to declare War against the Empe“ ror. Henry, astonished at his Minister's Presumption, “ fell into a great Passion with him before the whole “ Court; nay, he would perhaps have intirely disgraced

him, had he not been withheld by the Consideration “ of the Affair of the Divorce, where he could not

proceed without him: He made him, however, undergo a terrible Mortification by causing this Affair

to be examined in Council. This Enquiry would - doubtless have proved fatal to the Minister, if the

King had been pleased to pursue it, but he was con“ tented with the Cardinals Protestation, that he

thought he had acted agreeable to his Majesty's In" tentions.'

Now, can we reasonably believe, that if Wolfey had given any such Directions, without his Master's express Command, it would not have been a Charge against him on his Disgrace? But we do not find that to be the Cafe ; therefore it is to be presumed, that what Rapin has related is a Fiction of his own.

Rapin in his next Paragraph observes, “ That the

Emperor's Answer to Clarencieux being made pub“ lick in England, by the Ambassador's Means, Wolley

was afraid it would cause ill Effects among the People, considering the Weakness of the Motive the King had for undertaking the War." *

“For this Reason Wolsey assembled in the StarChamber all the great Lords then in Court, to whom “ he made a Speech, aggravating as much as possible " the Injuries the King had received from the Empe

ror, and his Reasons to demand Satisfaction by

“ Arms;

Though he before in fitted, • son to take part with France.' • That the King had good Rea- See our IIId Vol. fol. 392.


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“ Arms; but, let him say what he could, though

every one outwardly apprehended him, what the

Emperor said to the Herald made deeper Impres“sion than all the Arguments the Minister could ic

alledge. The People openly exclaimed against a “ War, which was going to ruin the Kingdom,

gratify the Favourite's Passion. Nay, some went “ further than Murmurs ; as the Trade in the Low Countries was interrupted by the Declaration of War, “ and the Merchants would buy no more Cloth than

they could vend, the Clothiers rise in Arms; where

upon the Cardinal ordered the Merchants to buy " the Cloth as usual, threatning in Cafe of Refusal,

to buy them himself, and sell them to the Fo

reigners : But they made a Jest of this Threat, ss and continued obstinate, resolving not to render " themselves liable to an inevitable Loss for his 6 Sake. +

“ An Embassy from the Governess of the Low Countries to the King, whilst these Things were in

Agitation, freed the Cardinal from his Embarraf

ment; the Ambassadors acquainting him, that, if “ the King pleased to accept of a Truce, the Gover“ ness would readily agree to it. This Overture be

ing debated in Council, it was resolved, notwithstanding the French Ambassador's Opposition, to

agree to a Truce for eight Months, which was sign« ed the 8th of June."

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* Was it to ruin the Kingdom Wolsey's Name odious to Pofterito endeavour to secure the Bal- ty among the Merchants and the lance of Power, by taking Mea- trading Part of the Nation, by sures to prevent the Emperor's be- gaining which he very well knew coming too great, as he before af- he should get the Majority on his ferted? See our IIId Vol.fol. 392. Side. Whereas nothing is more

manifeft, than that no Minister was + No Authority for this ; and a greater Encourager of Trade the Reader may easily perceive, than Wolfey. But pray oblerve that this was calculated to render how Monsieur comes off at lait. VOL. IV


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Afuirs of

Pope Clement had loft Florence, Parma, Italy. Reggio, and Rome itself, with the best Part 1528.

of the Ecclefiaftical State, feen himself drained of his Treasure, and a Captive not hastily to be ranfomed; which was sufficient to make him seriously reHect on his part Conduct, and take another Course.

The Ambassadors of England, France, and Venice, as soon as they found him secure at Orvieto, pressed him to declare against the Emperor ; but he, having learnt by fad Experience, that he had been the Dupe of his Allies, was resolved to be no longer guided by their interested Councils, and told them, “That his “ joining in the League would draw upon him fresh

Mischiefs, without procuring them any Advantage: “ That it was necessary, for the Benefit of ChristenCo dom, there should be a Mediator to procure Peace ; card that was all he could do in the State he was rec duced to." Neverthless he intimated, " That he

might take other Measures, if Lautrec prevailed on " the Emperor's Troops to abandon Rome.And this indeed was his sole Aim.

Now Lautrec begun to act again ; Lautrec fets out for Naples. for he departed from Bologna the gth of


Jan. and took the Road to Naples, having first fent Prince Vandemont to the Pope to press him to declare ; but Clement found Means to excuse himself, without giving him a positive Denial ; because, seeing all Europe in Motion, he was willing to wait the Event of the War, before he declared on either Side, which obliged him to use many Artifices not to displease one Party more than the other. If he had taken this Precaution at first, he might have fold his Favours almost at any Rate. Though Lautrec could not get a direct Answer from the Pope he pursued his March, and arrived on the Borders of the Kingdom of Naples the roth of February, being lorger on his Way than he had need, if he had been supplied with Money ; for the King of France


lence ;

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served him as before, in neglecting to send what he had promised:

Lautrec, when he quitted his Quarters in the Bolognese, had an Army of 28,000 Infantry, excellent Troops, besides Gendarmery and Light Horse ; and

; had no more to do, but to iun through the Kingdom of Naples to conquer it. However, his

March had this Effect, the Prince of Orange, though with Difficulty, got the Imperialists to quit Rome, and march to the Succour of Nopies, but they were in no Condition to oppose the French in the Field. Thus Rome was delivered from the Plague of military Ravagers, who had for ten Months exercised all Sort of Rapine and Vio

and the Remembrance of these Cruelties, in all Probability, remains with the Citizens to this Day. · However, the Marshal used all his Efforts to bring his Enemy to a Battle; but General Alarcon, who commanded the Spanish Troops, avoided it ; which being the Case, the Towns, as Lautrec marched on, opened their Gates to him, insomuch that Moncada, who was now become Vice-roy of Naples, finding himself not able to keep the Field, thought of nothing but defending the Capitol and Guietta ; whereupon he entered Naples with the Prince of Orange, and left the Defence of the latter Place to Alarcon, who took Poffefsion of it. In short, the French Army met with no Resistance till they came before Naples, which, according to Guicciardin, was April the 29th.

The taking this Capitol would have been a decisive Stroke, but the Vice-roy had brought into the Town with him 10,000 of his best Troops, so that the Garrison was very numerous, which caused Lau

to hold a Council of War, wherein it came to be debated, Whether the French should block it up, or immediately attack the Place? The latter was refolved on; and in the mean time Philippino Doria, Nephew to the famous Andrew Doria, undertook with his GalX2




lies to block it up, by Sea, which made Lautrec ap prehend he should not be long before he starved the Garrison out.

These Schemes were immediately put in Execution, whereby the Besieged soon became in want of Provisions, which they could not obtain unless the Sea was open. To effect this the Vice-roy, understanding Doria began to be very remifs in his Charge, thought to have surprized him, and that he had found a favourable Opportunity for it, which put him upon privately equipping all his Gallies, embarking himself with the choicest of his Garrison, and failing towards Doria.

But Marshal Lautrec, having been acquainted with this Design, timely apprized him of it, and sent him fome Troops. The Imperialists found Doria well prepared ; however, a bloody Battle ensued, the Neapolitans were defeated, the Vice-roy killed, and the Marquis del Vafto taken Prisoner.

This Defeat ftruck Naples with such a Confternation, that the Prince of Orange had a great deal of Difficulty to keep up their Spirits ; for, by the Death of the Vice-roy, the Defence of the Place devolved upon him, who behaved himself with all possible Courage and Conduct, frequently making brisk Sallies; notwithstanding this he must have funk, Scarcity and the Plague making great Havock in the Garrison, if the Besiegers had been able to have continued the Blockade; but their Condition was now worse than the Befieged, for the Plague had got among them too, being brought into the Camp by fome People from Naples, which increased to such a Degree, that, before the End of July, above 20,000 Soldiers were carried off, whereby there was not left above 4000 fighting Men ; and Lautrec also was seized with a contagious Disease, that made him uncapable of giving the necessary Orders for carrying on the Siege, which the Prince of Orange understanding, he wearied the Be


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