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"Arrival in England he waited on the King at Hamp "ton-court, before he fpoke with the Cardinal, and "fhewed him the Letter, with three others, writ with "the Cardinal's own Hand, whereby he gave him exprefs Orders to declare War against the Empe"ror. Henry, aftonished at his Minifter's Prefumption, "fell into a great Paffion with him before the whole "Court; nay, he would perhaps have intirely difgraced "him, had he not been withheld by the Confideration "of the Affair of the Divorce, where he could not proceed without him: He made him, however, undergo a terrible Mortification by caufing this Affair "to be examined in Council. This Enquiry would " doubtlefs have proved fatal to the Minifter, if the King had been pleased to purfue it, but he was con"tented with the Cardinal's Proteftation, that he thought he had acted agreeable to his Majefty's In"tentions.'
Now, can we reasonably believe, that if Wolfey had given any fuch Directions, without his Mafter's express Command, it would not have been a Charge against him on his Difgrace? But we do not find that to be the Cafe; therefore it is to be prefumed, that what Rapin has related is a Fiction of his own.
Rapin in his next Paragraph obferves, "That the Emperor's Anfwer to Clarencieux being made pub"lick in England, by the Ambaffador's Means, Wolfey was afraid it would caufe ill Effects among the Peoσε ple, confidering the Weaknefs of the Motive the King had for undertaking the War." *
"For this Reafon Wolfey affembled in the Star"Chamber all the great Lords then in Court, to whom "he made a Speech, aggravating as much as poffible "the Injuries the King had received from the Emperor, and his Reafons to demand Satisfaction by "Arms;
Though he before infifted, That the King had good Rea
fon to take Part with France.' See our IIId Vol. fol. 392.
"Arms; but, let him fay what he could, though every one outwardly apprehended him, what the Emperor faid to the Herald made deeper Impref"fion than all the Arguments the Minifter could 66 alledge. The People openly exclaimed against a "War, which was going to ruin the Kingdom, to "gratify the Favourite's Paffion. Nay, fome went "further than Murmurs; as the Trade in the Low "Countries was interrupted by the Declaration of War, " and the Merchants would buy no more Cloth than they could vend, the Clothiers rife in Arms; whereupon the Cardinal ordered the Merchants to buy "the Cloth as ufual, threatning in Cafe of Refufal, 65 to buy them himself, and fell them to the Fo"reigners: But they made a Jeft of this Threat, "and continued obftinate, refolving not to render "themselves liable to an inevitable Lofs for his "Sake. +
"An Embaffy from the Governefs of the Low "Countries to the King, whilft thefe Things were in "Agitation, freed the Cardinal from his Embarraf
ment; the Ambaffadors acquainting him, that, if "the King pleased to accept of a Truce, the Gover"nefs would readily agree to it. This Overture being debated in Council, it was refolved, notwithftanding the French Ambaffador's Oppofition, to agree to a Truce for eight Months, which was fign"ed the 8th of June."
*Was it to ruin the Kingdom to endeavour to fecure the Ballance of Power, by taking Meafures to prevent the Emperor's becoming too great, as he before afferted? See our IIId Vol. fol. 392.
+ No Authority for this; and the Reader may eafily perceive, that this was calculated to render VOL. IV
Wolfey's Name odious to Pofterity among the Merchants and the trading Part of the Nation, by gaining which he very well knew he should get the Majority on his Side. Whereas nothing is more manifeft, than that no Minister was a greater Encourager of Trade than Wolfey. But pray obferve how Monfieur comes off at laft. X
Affairs of Italy.
Pope Clement had loft Florence, Parma, Reggio, and Rome itfelf, with the best Part of the Ecclefiaftical State, feen himself drained of his Treasure, and a Captive not haftily to be ranfomed; which was fufficient to make him feriously reflect on his past Conduct, and take another Course.
The Ambaffadors of England, France, and Venice, as foon as they found him fecure at Orvieto, preffed him to declare against the Emperor; but he, having learnt by fad Experience, that he had been the Dupe of his Allies, was refolved to be no longer guided by their interested Councils, and told them, "That his joining in the League would draw upon him fresh "Mifchiefs, without procuring them any Advantage: "That it was neceffary, for the Benefit of Christendom, there fhould be a Mediator to procure Peace; "and that was all he could do in the State he was re"duced to." Neverthlefs he intimated, "That he might take other Mcafures, if Lautrec prevailed on "the Emperor's Troops to abandon Rome." And this indeed was his fole Aim.
out for Naples.
Now Lautrec begun to act again; Lautrec fets for he departed from Bologna the 9th of Jan. and took the Road to Naples, having firft fent Prince Vandemont to the Pope to press him to declare; but Clement found Means to excufe himself, without giving him a pofitive Denial; becaufe, feeing all Europe in Motion, he was willing to wait the Event of the War, before he declared on either Side, which obliged him to use many Artifices not to difpleafe one Party more than the other. If he had taken this Precaution at firft, he might have fold his Favours almoft at any Rate. Though Lautrec could not get a direct Anfwer from the Pope he purfued his March, and arrived on the Borders of the Kingdom of Naples the 10th of February, being longer on his Way than he had need, if he had been fupplied with Money; for the King of France
ferved him as before, in neglecting to fend what he had promifed.
Lautrec, when he quitted his Quarters in the Bolognefe, had an Army of 28,000 Infantry, excellent Troops, befides Gendarmery and Light Horse; and had no more to do, but to un through the Kingdom of Naples to conquer it. However, his March had this Effect, the Prince of Orange, though with Difficulty, got the Imperialifts to quit Rome, and march to the Succour of Napies, but they were in no Condition to oppose the French in the Field. Thus Rome was delivered from the Plague of military Ravagers, who had for ten Months exercifed all Sort of Rapine and Violence; and the Remembrance of thefe Cruelties, in all Probability, remains with the Citizens to this Day. · However, the Marshal used all his Efforts to bring his Enemy to a Battle; but General Alarcon, who commanded the Spanish Troops, avoided it; which being the Cafe, the Towns, as Lautrec marched on, opened their Gates to him, infomuch that Moncada, who was now become Vice-roy of Naples, finding himself not able to keep the Field, thought of nothing but defending the Capitol and Guietta; whereupon he entered Naples with the Prince of Orange, and left the Defence of the latter Place to Alarcon, who took Poffeffion of it. In fhort, the French Army met with no Refiftance till they came before Naples, which, according to Guicciardin, was April the 29th.
The taking this Capitol would have been a decifive Stroke, but the Vice-roy had brought into the Town with him 10,000 of his beft Troops, fo that the Garrifon was very numerous, which caufed Lautree to hold a Council of War, wherein it came to be debated, Whether the French fhould block it up, or immediately attack the Place? The latter was refolved on; and in the mean time Philippino Doria, Nephew to the famous Andrew Doria, undertook with his Gal
lies to block it up, by Sea, which made Lautrec ap prehend he should not be long before he starved the Garrifon out.
Thefe Schemes were immediately put in Execution, whereby the Befieged foon became in want of Provifions, which they could not obtain unless the Sea was open. To effect this the Vice-roy, understanding Doria began to be very remifs in his Charge, thought to have furprized him, and that he had found a favourable Opportunity for it, which put him upon privately equipping all his Gallies, embarking himself with the choiceft of his Garrison, and failing towards Doria.
But Marfhal Lautrec, having been acquainted with this Defign, timely apprized him of it, and fent him fome Troops. The Imperialists found Doria well prepared; however, a bloody Battle enfued, the Neapolitans were defeated, the Vice-roy killed, and the Marquis del Vafto taken Prifoner.
This Defeat ftruck Naples with fuch a Confternation, that the Prince of Orange had a great deal of Difficulty to keep up their Spirits; for, by the Death of the Vice-roy, the Defence of the Place devolved upon him, who behaved himself with all poffible Courage and Conduct, frequently making brifk Sallies; notwithstanding this he muft have funk, Scarcity and the Plague making great Havock in the Garrifon, if the Befiegers had been able to have continued the Blockade; but their Condition was now worfe than the Befieged, for the Plague had got among them too, being brought into the Camp by fome People from Naples, which increased to fuch a Degree, that, before the End of July, above 20,000 Soldiers were carried off, whereby there was not left above 4000 fighting Men; and Lautrec alfo was feized with a contagious Disease, that made him uncapable of giving the neceffary Orders for carrying on the Siege, which the Prince of Orange understanding, he wearied the Be