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good Graces, who, being now intent on carrying on his Building at Oxford, was pleased to intruft him with feveral great Affairs, and, in Procefs of Time becoming a very great Favourite, discharged himfelf faithfully to his Master both in Profperity and Adverfity, which was fo highly to his Honour, that he arrived at last to be Earl of Effex.

WE fhall next from the Beginning of this Year continue our Account of foreign Affairs, intermixed with the Cardinal's laft Attempt for the Popedom, and profecute the fame to the End of the Year 1530, and then return to speak of the Affairs of England, connecting the Hiftory of the Divorce, and conclude it with Wolfey's Difgrace and Death.

The King Sends new Inftructions to his Minifiers in Spain. 1528.

The French King and ours being now firmly united, in order to carry the Treaties they had made into Execution, King Henry thought proper, before he proceeded to make ufe of Arms against the Emperor, to fend to his Ambaffador, who was still in Spain, to make the following Demands of his Imperial Majefty. ft, "That he fhould pay what he

had borrowed of him and his Father King Henry "the VIIth. 2dly, Pay him 500,000 Crowns, he "had obliged himself to do, in cafe he mar"ried not the Princefs Mary. 3dly, According to "the Tenour of their Treaty, fatisfy him for his

Wolf. My Lord, there dwells within that Spirit More than can be difcern'd by outward Eye.

Sir Chriftopher, will you part with your Man?


Hales. I have thought to proffer him to your Lord fhip, And now you fee he hath proffered himself.

Wolf. What is thy Name?

Cromw. Cromwell, my Lord.

Wolf. Then, Cromwell, here we make thee Sollicitor of our Caufes, And nearest next ourself.

Gardiner, give your kind Welcome to the Man.


"Penfion from the King of France, whereof there "was now due four Years and four Months. 4thly, "Release the Pope, and fatisfy him for all the Da66 mages committed by his Troops."


To which the Emperor anfwered: “ ift, That he "had never denied his being Debtor to the King "of England; but was furprized that he should at "that Juncture infift on Payment. 2dly, That he "would write to the King, to fatisfy him why he did "not think himself liable to the Penalty demanded. 3dly, That Orders were fent to Italy to fet the Pope immediately at Liberty:" But faid nothing directly concerning the Satisfaction of the Penfion; though it is not unlikely he might couch it in the first Article. However, these Replies did not in the leaft fatisfy Henry, fo that he seemed bent to carry on the War against the Emperor.


Clement confined in his

own Caffle. 1528...

As Clement the VIIth was ftill to be confined in the Caftle of St. Angelo, till he could pay the Sums exacted from him, and, as he had but little Money, could only pay Part of what he promised, his Captivity was likely to continue longer than he expected : Alfo the Emperor not having Advice of the Sacking of Rome, and the Pope's Imprifonment, fooner than the beginning of June, and above a Month more paffed before he came to any Refolution, the Pope wrote to King Henry, and caufed the feventeen Car dinals, who were confined with him, to do the fame; whereby they defired his Protection, and entreated him to use his best Endeavours to free them from their unhappy Condition.

But, instead of setting the Pope immediately at Li berty, as the Emperor had promised our King, he was contriving how he might with a tolerable Grace con vey him into Spain, in order to make a better Bargain with him, than he could do in Italy. Of this


Cardinal Wolfey informed the King by a Letter of the 29th of July, by which it appears, that, notwithftanding the Emperor's pretended Moderation, he was very fond of having a Pope Prifoner in Spain, as juft before he had had a King.

It is certain his Majefty's Inftances in the Pope's Behalf greatly embarraffed the Emperor; and as the Kings of England and France jointly laboured to obtain the Pope's Liberty, he faw plainly that this Negotiation tended to unite them more and more, which must confequently break all his Measures in refpect to his Affairs in Italy; therefore he tried to divide them, and one of his Expedients was, to propose to Cardinal Wolfey (for now he thought proper to correfpond with him again) a Marriage between the Duke of Richmond, the King's natural Son, and Ifabella, Princess of Portugal, with whom he offered in Dower the Dutchy of Milan, in Prejudice of the lawful Heir, Duke Sforza: But this Bait would not take, for the Cardinal advised the King against it. However, as it was thought proper to keep fome fhew of a Correfpondence, the Propofal was received. Another Way was to endeavour to gain upon Wolfey, by offering him a large Sum befides his Penfion; but the Cardinal was not to be bribed, nor do we find one Inftance of his betraying his Mafter to serve his own Intereft; nay, Rapin, finds himself obliged to confefs, that the Emperor failed in his Application with respect to bribing Wolfey, but gives it this Turn, according to his ufual Candour,

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That for once he (meaning the Emperor) could ¢ not fucceed; but whether Wolfey was now too far engaged, or was bent to be revenged of the Em"peror, who had twice deceived him; or whether

the Bufinefs of the Divorce was now refolved on, "in which Cafe it was not poffible for them to pro"mife to efpoufe the Emperor's Interefts, I cannot "take upon myself to fay."


Be that as it was, the Emperor, feeing the ill Effect of the Pope's Captivity, difpatched the General of the Order of St. Francis to the Vice-roy of Naples, with Orders to release him; but the General, finding the Vice-roy dead, delivered the Inftructions to Hugo de Moncada; the Purport of which was in general, That his Holinefs fhould be bound to pay the Arrears due to the Army, and give Security to for fake the League: But, as it was not eafy for the Pope to find either Pledges or Money, the Affair having been fo prolonged, in the mean while he follicited Lautrec, by private Meffages, to approach Rome, in order to facilitate his Deliverance: And, though Lautrec had pofitive Orders not to make too much Hafte, his March was of good Service to the Pope; for Moncada, feeing the Kingdom of Naples was about to be invaded, and that it was not poffible to lead thither the Imperial Army, which was at Rome, without giving them Money, on the 2d of October, concluded a Treaty with the Pope to this Effect: "That the Pope fhould not oppofe "the Emperor in the Affairs of Naples "or Milan: That he fhould grant to the Emperor a Cruzade in Spain, and a "10th in the reft of his Dominions: That "the Emperor fhould keep Civita Vecchia, Oftria, "Citta, Caftellana, and the Castle of Furli: That "he fhould pay down to the German Troops "60,000 Ducats, and 35,000 to the Spaniards: That "in a Fortnight after he fhould pay them 350,000 "more: That, until the first Payments were made, "he fhould be conducted to fome fafe Place out of "Rome, and give Hoftages.


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The Emperor's
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The Treaty being figned, and two Cardinals delivered as Hostages, it was agreed, That, on the 10th of December, the Pope fhould be taken out of the Castle of St. Angelo, and conducted to a Place appointed: But, as he was afraid of a longer Confinement, VOL. IV.



because he was unable to perform the Treaty, he efcaped in Difguife the Night before, and fhut himself up in Orvieto.

When Lautrec heard the Pope was at Liberty, he reftored to him the City of Parma, and marched to Bologna, where he ftaid three Weeks, expecting fresh Orders from the King his Mafter. Some Days after he received a Letter from the Pope, acknowledging himself indebted to him for his Liberty, and intimating, that, being forced to grant the Imperialists whatever they required, he did not think himself obliged to perform his Engagements.

We here fee, in the Compafs of three Years Time, two Kings and a Pope were taken Prisoners by the Emperor's Forces: But neither the King of France nor the Pope thought themfelves under any Obligation to perform the hard Conditions they were obliged to fubmit to, in order to get rid of their Captivity.

For Varillas fays exprefly as to the Treaty figned by King Francis, when he was a Prifoner at Madrid, "No body there imagined, that fuch an unrea"fonable Convention ought to have been execut"ed; and the Spaniards, who had no Share in the


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Administration, had no fooner heard of it, but they published, though falfly, that the Flemings, who "feconded it, had fuffered themfelves to be corrupted "with Money: The Chancellor Gattinara conftantly "refused to feal it, and, when the Emperor, after hav

ing to no purpofe ufed Perfuafions and Intreaties with "him,flew into a Paffion, and commanded him to ex"pedite the Inftrument, he anfwered, That an honest "Man ought not, on any Occafion, to employ against his

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Mafter that Authority which he had given him; and "at the fame time returned him the Seal.* The Emperor received it only to feal the Treaty himself, "and returned it immediately after to the Chan"cellor: But it was with a great deal of Difficulty "he could perfuade him to take it, Gattinara hav

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