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good Graces, who, being now intent on carrying on his Building at Oxford, was pleased to intrust him with several great Affairs, and, in Process of Time becoming a very great Favourite, discharged himself faithfully to his Master both in Prosperity and Adversity, which was so highly to his Honour, that he arrived at last to be Earl of Ellex.

WE shall next from the Beginning of this Year continue our Account of foreign Affairs, intermixed with the Cardinal's last Attempt for the Popedom, and profecute the same to the End of the Year 1530, and then return to speak of the Affairs of England, connecting the History of the Divorce, and conclude it with IVolley's Disgrace and Death. The French King and ours being

now The King sends new Instructions firmly united, in order to carry the Treato kis Minifiers ties they had made into Execution, King in Spain. Henry thought proper, before he pro1528.

ceeded to make use of Arms against the Emperor, to send to his Ambassador, who was still in Spain, to make the following Demands of his Imperial Majesty. ift, “ That he should pay what he is had borrowed of him and his Father King Henry " the VIIth. 2 dly, Pay him 500,000 Crowns, he “ had obliged himself to do, in case he mar“ ried not the Princess Mary. 3dly, According to " the Tenour of their Treaty, satisfy him for his


Wolf. My Lord, there dwells within that Spirit
More than can be discern'd by outward Eye.
Sir Christopher, will you part with your Man?

Hales. I have thought to proffer him to your Lordship,
And now you see he hath proffered himself.

Wolf. What is thy Name?
Cromw. Cromwell, my Lord.

Wolf. Then, Cromwell, here we make thee Sollicitor of our Caules,
And neareít next ourself.
Gardiner, give your kind Welcome to the Man. (Exeunt.

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« Pension from the King of France, whereof there

was now due four Years and four Months. 4thly, “ Release the Pope, and satisfy him for all the Da

mages committed by his Troops."

To which the Emperor answered : “ ist, That he “ had never denied his being Debtor to the King “ of England ; but was surprized that he should at “ that Juncture insist on Payment. 2dly, That he " would write to the King, to satisfy him why he did

not think himself liable to the Penalty demanded. “ 3dly, That Orders were sent to Italy to set the “ Pope immediately at Liberty :” But said nothing directly concerning the Satisfaction of the Pension; though it is not unlikely he might couch it in the first Article. However, these Replies did not in the least satisfy Henry, so that he seemed bent to carry on the War against the Emperor. As Clement the VIIth was still to be

Clement conconfined in the Castle of St. Angelo, till fined in his

own Calle, he could pay the Sums exacted from

1528.. him, and, as he had but little Money, could only pay Part of what he promised, his Captivity was likely to continue longer than he expected : Also the Emperor not having Advice of the Sacking of Rome, and the Pope's Imprisonment, sooner than the beginning of June, and above a Month more passed before he came to any Resolution, the Pope wrote to King Henry, and caused the seventeen Cardinals, who were confined with him, to do the same ; whereby they desired his Protection, and entreated him to use his best Endeavours to free them from their unhappy Condition.

But, instead of setting the Pope immediately at Lia berty, as the Emperor had promised our King, he was contriving how he might with a tolerable Grace convey him into Spain, in order to make a better Bargain with him, than he could do in Italy. Of this


Cardinal Wolsey informed the King by a Letter of the 29th of July, by which it appears, that, notwithftanding the Emperor's pretended Moderation, he was very fond of having a Pope Prisoner in Spain, as just before he had had a King.

It is certain his Majesty's Inftances in the Pope's Behalf greatly embarrassed the Emperor ; and as the Kings of England and France jointly laboured to obtain the Pope's Liberty, he saw plainly that this Negotiation tended to unite them more and more, which must consequently break all his Measures in respect to his Affairs in Italy; therefore he tried to divide them, and one of his Expedients was, to propose to Cardinal Wolsey (for now he thought proper to correspond with him again) a Marriage between the Duke of Richmond, the King's natural Son, and Isabella, Princess of Portugal, with whom he offered in Dower the Dutchy of Milan, in Prejudice of the lawful Heir, Duke Sforza : But this Bait would not take, for the Cardinal advised the King against it. However, as it was thought proper to keep some shew of a Correspondence, the Proposal was received. Another Way was to endeavour to gain upon Wolsey, by offering him a large Sum besides his Penfion; but the Cardinal was not to be bribed, nor do we find one Instance of his betraying his Master to serve his own Interest; nay, Rapin, finds. himself obliged to confess, that the Emperor failed in his Application with respect to bribing Wolsey, but gives it this Turn, according to his usual Candour,

That for once he (meaning the Emperor) could

not succeed ; but whether Wolsey was now too far ** engaged, or was bent to be revenged of the Em

peror, who had twice deceived him ; or whether so the Business of the Divorce was now resolved on, “ in which Cafe it was not possible for them to pro"mise to espouse the Emperor's

. Interests, I cannot se take upon myself to say.'



Be that as it was, the Emperor, seeing the ill Effect of the Pope's Captivity, dispatched the General of the Order of St. Francis to the Vice-roy of Naples, with Orders to release him ; but the General, finding the Vice-roy dead, delivered the Instructions to Hugo de Moncada ; the Purport of which was in general, That his Holiness should be bound to pay the Arrears due to the Army, and give Security to forsake the League: But, as it was not easy for the Pope to find either Pledges or Money, the Affair having been so prolonged, in the mean while he sollicited Lautrec, by private Messages, to approach Rome, in order to facilitate his Deliverance: And, though Lautrec had positive Orders not to make too much Halte, his March was of good Service to the Pope ; for Mon

; cada, seeing the Kingdom of Naples was about to be invaded, and that it was not possible to lead thither the Imperial Army, which was at Rome, without giving them Money, on the 2d of Oktober, concluded a Treaty with the Pope to this Effect :

“ Íhat the Pope should not oppose The Emperor's “ the Emperor in the Affairs of Naples General con" or Milan : That he should grant to the


ty with the Emperor a Cruzade in Spain, and a

Pope. 10th in the rest of his Dominions: That " the Emperor should keep Civita Vecchia, Ostria, " Citta, Castellana, and the Castle of Furli: That “ he should pay down to the German Troops “ 60,000 Ducats, and 35,000 to the Spaniards: That “ in a Fortnight after he should pay them 350,000

more: That, until the first Payments were made, “ he should be conducted to some safe Place out of “ Rome, and give Hostages.”

The Treaty being ligned, and two Cardinals delivered as Hostages, it was agreed, That, on the roth of December, the Pope should be taken out of the Castle of St. Angelo, and conducted to a Place appointed : But, as he was afraid of a longer Confinement, Vol. IV.


because ing A noble Memento this!


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because he was unable to perform the Treaty, he escaped in Disguise the Night before, and shut himself

up in Orvieto.

When Lautrec heard the Pope was at Liberty, he restored to him the City of Parma, and marched to Bologna, where he staid three Weeks, expecting fresh Orders from the King his Master. Some Days after he received a Letter from the Pope, acknowledging himself indebted to him for his Liberty, and intimating, that, being forced to grant the Imperialists whatever they required, he did not think himself obliged to perform his Engagements.

We here see, in the Compass of three Years Time, two Kings and a Pope were taken Prisoners by the Emperor's Forces : But neither the King of França nor the Pope thought themselves under any Obligaţion to perform the hard Conditions they were obliged to fubmitto, in order to get rid of their Captivity.

For Varillas says expresly as to the Treaty signed by King Francis, when he was a Prisoner at Madrid, << No body there imagined, that such an unrea“ fonable Convention ought to have been execut“ ed; and the Spaniards, who had no Share in the

Administration, had no sooner heard of it, but they

published, though fallly, that the Flemings, who “ seconded it, had suffered themselves to be corrupted

with Money : The Chancellor Gattinara constantly " refused to feal it, and, when the Emperor, after hav

ing to no purpose used Perfuasions and Intreaties with him, flew into a Passion, and commanded him to ex

pedite the Instrument, he answered, That an honest Man ought not, oil any Occasion, to employ against bis

Majter that Authoriiy which he had given him, and " at the faine time returned him the Scal.* The Em

peror received it only to feal the Treaty himself, ss and returned it immediately after to the Chan“ cellor : But it was with a great deal of Difficulty “ he could perfuade him to take it, Gattinara hav

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