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“ like Deposit into the same King's Hands, as a

Pledge, That the Hostages should be restored on “ the Conclusion of the Peace."

This not being approved of, War was the only Resourse.

Cardinal Wolsey, through his whole Ministry, was for preserving Christendon from Affairs of

Poland. the Insults and cruel Treatment of the

1527. Turks and Infidels, of which the King of Poland was so sensible, that he wrote him the following Letter, to acquaint him of the Condition Rhodes, Hungary, &c. were in.


SIGISMOND to the Cardinal of YORK.


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" Dear and Honoured Friend,

HEN the magnificent John Wallop, Great

Marshal of Calais, resided here, he signified to us your Most Reverend Lordship's great Friend

ship for us, as likewise your great Care and Study “ of the good State of Christianity, and the Defence “ thereof against the Infidels, which we the more a

greeably heard, as we understand your Most Rev. Lordship’s Authority to be in the greatest Credit,

as it deserves, with the renowned King our most “ dear Brother, and the whole Nation : Wherefore

we return you no small Thanks, and congratulate « with Ourselves and the afflicted Christian Interest,

to which we may promise fome Hopes of Safety.

That great Regard we have on our Part for the « most Serene King our Brother and Cousin, as well " as for your moft Rev. Lordship, and also what the " Situation and Condition of those Kingdoms are “ which now alone bear the Shock of all the Strength « of the Infidels, though not able long fo to do, the " said Mr. Wallop will represent to you, and we entreat your most Rev. Lordship to be present with

us, Rym. Fæd. Vol. XIV.

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us, and the Kingdom of Hungary, in Advice « and Favour, that our most Serene Brother, toge“ther with the rest of the chief Princes, may be “ moved to succour us in our extreme Distress. Those “ who live North East of us afford us little Hopes, “ for they themselves vex and amict the Christian Re

ligion with their Ignominy abundantly more than
any Infidels, not knowing what Calamity may fall

on them equally with several others, on account “ of our shattered State.

We heartily commend Ourselves, and our Subjects, who trade to the Kingdom of England, to your Rev. Lordship, as our most particular Friend, whom

we are willing to gratify in every respect that we
" shall be capable of, and never to be wanting to you
" in any friendly Office. The Lord always preserve
you in Health and Happiness.
Given at Cracow, on the 7th of May, in the

Year of our Lord 1527, and in the 21/7
Year of our Reign.


Besides this there are many Letters in the Cotton Library to King Henry and Wolsey, relating to the losing of Rhodes, and the imminent Danger Christendom was in from the Turks, and other Enemies of the Christian Faith; and from what appears the King, during the whole Course of the Cardinals Ministry, notwithstanding the Distance of England from these Countries, was always ready to contribute the utmost Afiftance in his Power. Affairs of

Cardinal Wolfey and the French AmbassaEngland. dors had been for some time employed in 1527. forming several Treaties between their Masters, and, to affist those who were already in England, Francis sent over the Bishop of Tarbæ, Gabriel Gramont; and the Viscount Turenne.



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Soon after their Arrival, they concluded with the Cardinal, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Sir Thomas More, Chancellor of the Dutchy of Lancaster,

and other Commissioners, three Treaties, which were signed the zoth of April, 1527, at the very Time the Duke of Bourbon was marching to Rome. The first Treaty setlted,

Treaties between " the two Kings should jointly send England and

France. “ Ambassadors to the Emperor, with “ Offers concerning the Ransom of the two Hosta

ges, and to demand the Payment of what was “ due to the King of England: That if he re

jected the Offers, or gave no Answer within 20

Days, the two Kings should proclaim War against « him: That Francis should chuse, whether he or “ his Son, the Duke of Orleans, should marry the “ Princess Mary."

By the 2d Treaty it was agreed, “ In Case the “ Emperor rejected their Proposals, or deferred his “ Answer, all Commerce with him should be forbidden

by both Monarchs: That they should raise and march “ against him with an Army of 30,000 Foot, and 1500 “ Men at Arms; and that two Thirds of the Foot, and “ all the Horse should be found by the King of France: “ That they should equip a Fleet with 15,000 Men, “ whereof the King of France should find 10,000 : “ That if the King of Portugal, or any other Prince, “ should join with the Emperor, they should be declared “ Enemies to both Kings : That the Pope and Ve

" netians * The Chancellor is chief hath long since been annext to Judge of this Court, who is af- the Crown. This Court is held fifted by the Attorney General at Westminster-hall in the lower of the Dutchy, and it is called Exchequer, near the Tally Court. the Dutchy Court, which takes The present Chancellor of the Cognizance of all Causes any Dutchy of Lancaster, is the ways relating to the Revenue of Right Hon. George, Earl of Chalthe Dutchy of Lancaster, which mondeley. Vol. IV.



66 That


" netians should be included in the League, provided “ they continued the War in Italy : That the King ss of France should endeavour to persuade the King " of Navarre and the Duke Guelders to make War on " the Emperor : That the League should be noti" fied to the Princes of the Empire, and Endeavours “ used to prevent their assisting him"

The Substance of the third Treaty was, " this Treaty should not derogate from that of “ Moore : That there should be a perpetual Peace “ between Francis and Henry, and their respective


Henry renounced for himself and Successors, all Right and Title to the Kingdom of France, and in general whatever Francis now possessed.

In Consideration whereof Francis bound himself and Succeffors to pay to Henry's Successors an Annual Pension for ever of 50,000 Crowns at two Payınents; and the Payment of the rest, to commence the Day after Henry's Death, without Deduction of what shall remain to be paid after Henry's Decease of the Money ftipulated by the Treaty of Moore.

These Treaties were approved and confirmed by the great Men of the two Kingdoms, whose Names are inserted in the Articles, under Forfeiture of all their Goods, and by the Parliaments of France, as well as the Courts of Justice in England.

Hall says, “ The People were much against the « Princess's marrying a French Prince, because, being " the King's presumptive Heir, if the succeeded to " the Crown of England, she might in such Case be $6 too much under the Influence of France."

In the Progress of the Treaty between the Cardinal and the King's other Ministers, and the French Ambassadors, concerning the Efpoufals of the Princess Mary to the French King, or the Duke of Orlians, (for which it was not as yet determined) the


Bishop of Tarbe raised * Objections against the Legitimacy of this Princefs Mary, upon account of her being Daughter to Queen Catherine; who had formerly married Prince Arthur, and therefore he insinua-, ted, that it was not lawful for the King to marry the Widow of his deceased Brother, which was the first Rise, as many Historians affirm, of the famous


* The Legitimacy of the Prin- vourable Conditions on the Behalf cess Mary was not only questioned of his Master. by the Ministers of France, and Yet nothing is more evident, probably by express Direction of than that Dispensations for Marthat Court, out of regard to the riages, within the prohibited DeNicety and Importance of the grees, were frequently granted Affair in general, as well as for by the Popes, and that this was the Reasons above specified ; but one of the Means that contribu the like Exception was also made ted much to replenish the Papal to her Birth by the Emperor and Exchequer. The very Bull, Hen. Council of Spain, upon which ry the VIIIth sollicited from Clethey grounded the Reasons of ment the VIIth, in order to difdissolving the Contract of Mar- folve his Marriage with Queen riage between her and his Impe- Catherine, doth Iuppose such a rial Majesty, alledging the un- dispensing Power in his Holiness; lawful Marriage of King Henry for it allows, 'The King to conto the Relict of his Brother Ar- • tract Marriage with any other thur, of whom this Princess was . Woman, though nearly allied born. Upon this was questioned • to him, either in the ad or not only her own Birth, but whe- more remote Degree of Conther her Children would be legi- • sarguinity, or in the first De. timate.

gree of Affinity, or joining to Though it is highly probable, him by lawful or unlawful

• that the Exceptions did not pro- Commerce, provided the be

• ceed so much from any religious • not the Reliet of his Brother.' Conflicts of Mind, as from Con- And the Exception even as to fiderations purely political in her is not made on Account of the Spaniards, that the Emperor any absolutely moral Incapacity might be at Liberty to marry of their marrying together, buc a Daughter of Portugal, where upon a Suggestion, that a Lis his Interest, and perhaps his Af- cense to that End had not been fection, might then more encline canonically obtained, or confirmed him ; and in the French Mi- with full ard sufficient Powers. nifter, that the King of England, The Emperor afterwards proin regard to this Difficulty, cured a Marriage by Virtue of might condescend to nors fa- a Dispensation froin Pope Julius




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