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DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS,-to wii .
District Clerk's Ofice. be IT REMEMBERED, That on the twenty-ninth day of July, A. D. 1823, and in the forty eighth yoar of the Independence of the United States of America, LINCOLN & EDMANDS, SANUEL T. ARMSTRONG, and CHARLES EWER, of tho said District, have deposited in this office, the title of a book, the right whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the words following, to wit : Walker's Critical Pronouncing Dictionary, and Expositor of the English Language. Abridged for the use of Schools. To which is annexea, an abridgment of Walker's Key to the Pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture Proper Names In conformity to the Act of the Congress of the United States, entitled, “ An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned :" and also to an Act, entitled, " An Act supplementary to an act, entitled, An Act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charls, and books, to the Authors and Propriotors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned; and extending the bencfits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.'
· JNO. W. DAVIS,
Clerk of the District af
Few subjects have af late years more employed the fons of every class of criticks, than the improvement of
!!ic English Language. The greatest abilities in the nation have been exerted in cultivating and reform ng it; nor have a thousand minor criticks been wanting to add their mite of amendment to their native ton; ae Johnson, whose large mind and just taste made hiin capable of enriching and adorning the Language with original composition, has condescended to the drudgery of disentangling, explaining, and arranging it, and left a lasting monument of his ability, labour, and patience; and Dr. Lowth, the politest scholar of the age, has availed his superiority in his short Introduction to English Gramınar. The ponderous folio has gravely vindicated the rights of analogy; and the light ephemeral"sheet of news has corrected errours in Grammar, as well as in Politicks, by slyly marking them in Italicks.
Nor has the improvement stopped here. While Johnson and Lowth have been insensibly operating on the orthography and construction of our Language, its pronunciation has not been neglected. The importance of a consistent and regular pronunciation was too obvious to be overlooked: and tho want of this corisistency and regularity has induced several ingenijus men to endeavour at a reformation; who, by exhibiting the regularities of pronunciation, and pointing out its analogies, have reclaimed some words that were not irrecoverably fixed in a wrong sound, and prevented others from being perverted by ignorance or caprice
Among those writers who deserve the first praise on this subject, is Mr. Elphinston; who, in his Principles of the English Language, has reduced the chaos to a system; and, by a denp investigation of the analogies of our tongue, has laid the foundation of a just and regular pronunciation.
After him, Dr. Kenrick contributed a portion of improvement by his Rhetorical Dictionary; in which the words are divided into syllables as they are pronounced, and figures placed over the vowels, to ir:dicate their different sounds. Bet this gentleman has rendered his Dictionary extremely imperfect, by entirely omitting a great number of words of doubtful and difficult pronunciation-those very words for which a Dictionary of This kind would be most consulted.
To hinn succeeded Mr. Sheridan, who not only divided the words into syllables, and placed figures over the rowels, as Dr. Kenrick had done, but, by spelling these syllables as they are pronounced, seemed to complete the idea of a Pronouncing Dictionary, and to leave but little expectation of future improvement. It must, indeed, be confessed, that Mr. Sheridan's Dictionary is greatly superiour to every other that preceded it; and his method of conveying the sound of words, by spelling them as they are pronounced, is highly rational and useful.—But here sincerity obliges me to stop. Numerous instances of impropriety, inconsistency, and want of acquaintance with the analogies of the Language, sufficiently show that his Dictionary is upon the whole imperfect, and that ample room was left for attempting another, which might better answer the purpose of a Guide to Pronunciation.
Toe last writer on this subject is Ms. Nares, who, in his Elements of Orthoepy, has shown a clearness of method and an extent of observation which deserve the highest encomiums. His Preface alone proves him an elegant writer, as well as a philosophical observer of Language; and his Alphabetical Index, referring pear five thousand words to the rules for pronouncing
them, is a new and useful method of treating the subject; bat he seems, on many occasions, to have mistaken the best usage, and to have paid tou little attention to the first principles of pronunciation. The work I have offered on the subject has, I hope, added something to the publick stock; as I have endea voured to unite the science of Mr. Elphinston, the method of Mr. Nares, and the general utility of 11r. Sheridan.
With respect to the explonation of words, except in very fow instancus, I have scrupulously followed! Dr
THE SIMPLE AND DIPHTHONGAL VOWELS REFERRED TO BY THE FIGURES
OVER THE LETTERS IN THIS DICTIONARY.
1 d. The long slender English a, as in fàto, pa-per, &c. é in fée, épée.
a in dge, Châlons.
i in mitre, epitro. 2. e. The short e, as in mết, lét, gết
e in mettre, nette. 1. 1 The long diphthongal i, as in plne, tl-tle
ar in larque, naif. 2. 1. The short simple i, as in pin, tit-tle
i in innė, titré. 1. d. The long open o, as in no, note, nd-tice
o in globe, lobe. e. 0. The long close o, as in move, prove
ou in mouvoir, pouvoir } 8. The long broad 6, as in nồr, fôr, dr; like the broad & o in or, for, encor. 4. 8. The short broad o, as in nôt, hôt, gốt
o in hotte, cotte. 1. 4. The long diphthongal u, as in tube, Cu-pid
iou in Cioutat,chiourme 2 å. The short simple u, as in tứb, củp, súp
eu in neuf, reuf 3 ů. The middle or obtuse u, as in bull, full, påll
ou in boule, foule poule 81. The long 8, and the short 1, as in 811
of in cycloid, heroique. 68. The long broad 8, and the middle obtuse ů, as in thdå, påånd aoû in Avûte.;
Th. The acute or sharp th, as in think, thin.
TH: The grave or flat Tu, as in This, Thạt. When G is printed in the Roman character, it has its hard sound in get, gone, &c. is go, gioe, gecse, &c.; when it has its soft sound, it is spelled in the notation by the conso nant.' as giant, ginger, ji-ant, jin-jer. The same may be observed of s: the Roman chara ter denotes its hard sound in "sin, sun, &c. as so, sit, sense, &c. its soft sound is spelled by z, as rose, raise, &c. roze, raze, &c.
SCHEME OF THE VOWELS.
Fåte, får, fåll, fåt-mé, mét-plne, pin—no, móve, nôr, nôt-tube, tůb, båll—811-påånd
-thin, this. ABB
ARE an article set before nouns of the sin-, Abbot, ab våt.s.the chief of a content of men
Before a word beginning with a vowel, it is Abbreviation, åb-bre-ve-d'shủn. s. the act written An, as an ox. A is sometimes a of shortening.
[abridges. noun, as great A. A is placed before a Abbreviator, ab-brė-vė-d'tår. s. one who participle, or participial noun; as a hunt- Abbreviature, áb-brévé-a-tshåre, s. a marks ing, a begging. A has a signification de- used for shortening.
[to resign. noting proportion; as, the landlord has a Abdicate, ab’de-kåte, o.a, to give up right, hundred a year,
Abdication, åb-de-kå'shủn. s. the act of abAbaft, å-båft'. ad. from the fore part of the dicating. ship, towards the stern.
[desert. Abdicative, ab’de-ka-tiv. a. that causes or Abandon, å-bån'dún. 0. a. to give up; to implies an abdication.
[the belly. Abandoned, å-bån'důnd. par, given up.
Abdomen, åb-do'mėn. s. the lower part of Abandonment, å-bån'důn-mont. s. the act Abdominal, ab-dom'ıné-nål. of abandoning.
Abdominous, ab-dommends.} a. relating Abarticulation, ab-år-tik-u-la'shủn. s. that to the abdomen.
species of articulation that has manifest Abduce, ab-dúse'. 0. a. to withdraw one motion.
part from another. Abase, å-båse'. o.a. to depress, to bring low. Abducent, åb-dů'sếnt. a. muscles abducent Abasement, å-båso'mént. s. the state of serve to open or pull back divers parts of being brought low; depression.
the body. Abash, å-båsh'. 0. a. to make ashamed. Abductor, ab-dåkstår. s. the muscles which Abate, a-båte'. 0. a. to leseen, to diminish. draw back the several members. Abatement, a-båte'mént. 8. the act of abat- Alied, a-bed'. ad. in bed.
ing; the sum taken away by abating. Aberrance, åb-ér/rânse. s. a deviation from Abater, å-bå'tår. s. cause by which an the right way, an errour. abatement is procured.
Aberrant, ab-ér'rânt. a. wandering from the Abb, åb. s. the yarn on a weaver's warp. right way. Abbacy, abbå-sé. $. the possessions or privi- Aberration, ab-er-ra'shûn. s. the act of doleges of an abbot.
(nery. viating from the common track Abbess, áb biss. s. the superiour of a nun. Aberring, ab-êr'ring. part. going astray: Abbey, or Abhy, ab'bė, s. a njenastery of Aberuncate, ab-t-růn'ka:e. o. a. to pull up religious persons
by the roots.