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Of all men alive,

natures, but letteth loose the guard of individuals I never yet beheld that special face,

or single existencies.

Browa. Which I could fancy more than any other. Shak. The Phenix Pindar is a whole species alone. Nought so vile that on the earth doth live,

Curules. But to the earth some speciai good doth give.

For we are animals no less,

Shakspeare. Although of different species. Hudibras. The fourth commandment, in respect of any Thou nam'st a race that must proceed from one definite and special day of every week, was

me, not simply and perpetually moral.

W bite. Yet my whole species in myself I see. Pryden. Our Saviour is represented every where in A mind of superior or meaner capacities scripture as the special patron of the poor and than human would constitute a different species, the afflicted, and as laying their interest to heart though united to a human body in the same more nearly than those of any other of his Jaurs of connexion : and a mind of human capamembers.

Atterbury. cities would make another species, if united to a 3. Appropriate; designed for a particular different body in different laws of connexion.

Bentley purpose.

O'Nca!, upon his marriage with a daughter of 3. Appearance to the senses; any visible Kildare, was made denizen by a special act of or sensible representation. parliament.

Davies. An apparent diversity between the species Such things are evident by natural light, visible and audible is, that the visible doth not which men of a mature age, in the ordinary use mingie in the mediuin, but the audible doth. of their faculties, with the common help of mu

Bacon. tual society, may know and be sufficientiy as

It is a most certain rule, how much any budy sured of without the help of any special revela hath of colour, so much hath it of opacity, and tion.

Wilkins. by so much the more untit it is to transmit the 4. Extraordinary; uncommon.


Rzy. That which necessity of some special time

The species of the letters illuminated with doth cause to be enjoined, bindeth no longer

blue were nearer to the lens than those illumi. than during that time, but doth afterward be nated with deep red, by about three inches, or come free,

Huker. three and a quarter; but the species of the leto The other scheme takes special care to attrie

ters illuminated with indigo and violet appeared bute all the work of conversion to grace.

so confused and indistinct, that I could not read Hammond. them,

Newter, Though our charity should be universal, yet 4. Representation to the mind. as it cannot be actually exercised but on par. Wit in the poet, or wit-writing, is no other ticular times, so it should be chiefly on special than the faculty of imagination in the writer, opportunities.


which searches over all the memory for the He bore

species or ideas of those things which it designs A paunch of the same bulk before;

to represent.

Dryden. Which still he had a special care

5. Show; visible exhibition. Not in use; To keep well cramm'd with thrifty fare.

and perhaps, in the following quotation, Hudibras.

misprinted for spectacles. s. Chief in excellence.

Shews and species serve best with the people. The king hath drawn

Bacon. The special head of all the land together. Sbaks. 6. Circulating money. SPECIALLY. adv. [from special.]

As there was in the splendour of the Roman 1. Particularly, above others.

empire a less quantity of current species in EuSpecially the day that thou stoodest before

rope than there is now, Rome possessed a much the Lord.

Deuteronomy. greater proportion of the circulating species of A brother beloved, specially to me. Pbil. its time than any European city. Arbuthnote 2. Not in a common way; peculiarly. 7. Simples that have place in a compound If there be matter of law that carries any difa

medicine. ficulty, the jury nay, to deliver themselves from

Speci’rical. adj. [specifique, Fr. species an attaint, find it specially.


SPECIFICK, I SPE'CIALTY. I n. s. I specialité, Fr. from

and facio, Lat.] SPECIALITY.S special.] Particularity.

1. That makes a thing of the species of

which it is. On these two general hcads all other specialities are dependent.


That thou to truth the perfect way may'st

know, The packet is not come Where that and other specialties are bound.

To thee all her specifick forms I'll show. Derb. Sbukspeare.

The understanding, as to the exercise of this Speciality of rule hath been neglected. Shuks.

power, is subject to the command of the will, When men were sure, that, in case they

though, as to the specifick nature of its acts, it is

determined by the object. rested upon a bare contract without speciality,


By whose direction is the nutriment so regu. the other party might wage his law, they would

larly distributed into the respective parts, and not rest upon such contracts without reducing the debt into a specialiiy, which accorded many

how are they kept to their specifick uniformities? suits. Hale.

Glanville SPECIES. n. s. [species, Latin.)

These principles I consider not as occult

qualities, supposed to result from the specifice 1. A sort; a subdivision of a general term.

forms of things, but as general laws of nature, A special idea is called by the schools a spe by which the things themselves are formed; cics; it is one common nature that agrees to

their truth appearing to us by phænomena, several singular individual beings: so horse is a

though their causes be not yet discovered. special idea or species, as it agrees to Bucephalus,

Newton. Trot, and Snowball.

Watts. As all things were formed according to these 2. Class of nature ; single order of beings. specifical platforms, so their truth must be mea

He intendech the care of species or common sured from their conformity to them. Norris

Specifik gravity is the appropriate and pecu Greece, where the countries, and the uses of har gravity or weight which any species of nae

their soils, are specified.

Pups. rural bodies have, and by which ihey are plainly SPE'CIMEN, n. s. (specimen, Latin.) A distinguishable from all other bodies of different

sample ; a part of any thing exhibited, kinds.


that the rest may be known. The specifick qualities of plants reside in their

Several persons have exhibited specimens of native spirii, oil, and essencial salt: for the water,

this art before multitudes of beholders. Spectator. fixt salt, and earth, appear to be the same in all Spescious. adj. (specieux, Fr. speciosus, pants.

Arbuthnot. Specifick difference is that primary attribute

Latin.] which distinguishes each species from one an 1. Showy; pleasing to the view. other, while they stand ranked under the same

The rest, far greater part, general nature or genus. Though wine differs Will deem in outward rices and specious forms from other liquids, in that it is the juice of a cer Religion satisfied.

Milton. cain fruit, yet this is but a general or generick

She next I took to wife, difference; for it does not distinguish wine from O that I never had ! fond wish too late!

der or perry: the specifick diiference of wine Was in the vale of Sorec, Dalila, therefore is its pressure from the grape; as cy

That specious monster, my accomplish'd snare. der is pressed from apples, and perry from pears.

Alilton. W'atts. 2. Plausible ; superficially, not solidly 2. (In medicine.] Appropriated to the right; striking at first view. cure of some particular distemper. It

Bad men boast is usually applied to the arcana, or me.

Their specious deeds on earth which glory exdicines that work by occult qualities.


Or close ambition varnish'd o'er with zeal, Milt. The operation of purging medicines has been referred to a hidden propriety, a specifical virtue,

Somewhat of specious they must have to reand the like shifts of ignoracce.


commend themselves to princes; for foily will If she would drink a good decoction of sarsa,

not easily go down in its natural form. Dryden, with the usual specificks, she might enjoy a good

Temptation is of greater danger, because it is health.


covered with the specious names of good nature and good manners.

Rogers, SPECIFICALLY. adv. [from specifick.]

This is the only specious objection which our In such a manner as to constitute a

Romish adversaries urge against the doctrine of species ; according to the nature of the this church in the point of celibacy. Atterbury. species.

SPE'CIOUSLY. adv. (from specious.] With 'His faith must be not only living, but lively fair appearance. too; it must be put into a posture by a particu Piety is opposed to hypocrisy and insincerity; lar exercise of those several virtues that are spe especially to that personated devotion under ofically requisite to a due performance of this

which any kind of impiety is wont to be disScuth.

guised, and put off more speciously. Hammond. Human reason doth not only gradually, but Speck. n. s. [rpecec, Saxon.] A small specifically, differ from the fantastick reason of

discoloration ; a spot. brutes, which have no conceit of truth, as an aggregate of divers simple conceits, nor of any

Every speck does not blind a man. ether universal.


Government of the tongue. He must allow that bodies were endowed with

Then are they happy, when the same affections then as ever since; and that,

No speck is left of their habitual stains ; if an axe head be supposed to Hoat upon water,

But the pure æther of the soul remains. Dryde which is specifically lighter, it had been super

To SPECK. v. a. To spot; to stain in natural.

Beniley. drops. To SPECI'FICATE. v. a. (from species and

Flow'r facis, Lat.) To mark by notation of

Carnation, purple, azure, or speck'd with gold.

Milton. distinguishing particularities.

Man, by the instituted law of his creation, SPECKLE. n. s. [from speck.] Small speck; and the commen influence of the divine good

little spot. ness, is enabled to act as a reasonable creature, TO SPE'CKLE, v. a. [from the noun.) To without any particular, specifuating, concurrent, mark with small spots. new imperate act of the divine special pro So drcadfully he towards him did pass,


Forelifting up aloft his speckled breast, SPECIFICATION. n. s. [from specif.k ;

And often bounding on the bruised grass, specification, Fr.]

As for great joy of his new comen guest. 1. Distinct notation ; determination by a

Fairy Queen. peculiar mark.

Speckled vanity

Will sicken soon and die, This specification or limitation of the question, hinders the disputers from wandering away from

And leprous sin will melt from earthly mould.

Milton. the precise point of enquiry.

Saw'st thou not late a speckled serpent rear 2. Particular mention.

His gilded spires to climb on yon fair tree? The constitution here speaks generally, with Before this happy minute I was he. Dryden. out the specification of any place.


The smiling infant in his hand shall take To SPŁ'cify.v. a. (from species; specifier,

The crested basilisk and speckled snake; French.) To mention; to show by some

Pleas'd the green lustre of the scales survey, particular mark of distinction.

And with their forky tongue and pointless sting As the change of such lays as have been spro

shall play:

Popes mifeed is necessary, so the evidence that they are

The tortoise here and elephant unite,

Transform’d to combs, the speckled and the St. Peter doth not spe:ify wiat these waters


Popes Burnet. SPECKT or Speight. n. S. A woodpecker. He has there given us an exact geography of





such must be great.



SPECTACLE. n. s. [Spectacle, Fr. spectacu The very poetical use of the word, for a spectre lum, Latin.]

doth imply an exact resemblance to some real 1. A show; a gazing stock; any thing being it represents.

Stilling fleet. exhibited to the view as eminently re

These are nothing but spectres the under. markable.

standing raises to itself, to flatter its own lazi.

Locke. In open place produc'd they me, To be a publick spect ecle to all.


2. Something made preternaturally visible. We are made a spectacle unto angels and men.

SPECTRUM. n. s. [Latin.] An image; a

1 Corinthians. visible form. 2. Any thing perceived by the sight.

This prism bad some veins running along Forth riding underneath the castle wall, within the glass, from the one end to the other, A dunghill of dead carcases he spy'd,

which scattered some of the sun's light irregue The dreadful spectacle of that sad house of pride.

larly, but had no sensible effect in increasing the Fairy Queen.

length of the coloured spectrum. Newton, When pronouncing sentence, seem not glad; SPECULAR. adj. [specularis, Latin.] Such spectacles, though they are just, are sad.


1. Having the qualities of a mirror or look. 3. [In the plural.] Glasses to assist the

it were but madness now t’impart sight.

The skill of specular stone.

Donne The sixth age shifts Into the lean and slipper'd pantaloon,

Quicksilver may, by the fire alone, in glass

vessels, be turned into a red body; and from this With spectacles on nose, and pouch on side. red body may be obtained a mercury, bright and

specular as before.

Boyle. We have helps for sight above spectacles and A speculum of metal without glass, made glasses.


some years since for optical uses, and very well Shakspeare was naturally learned: he needed

wrought, produced none of those rings; and not the spectacles of books to read nature; he thence I understood that these rings arise not looked inwards and found her there. Dryden. from the specular surface alone, but depend up The first spectacle-maker did not think that

on the two surfaces of the plate of glass whereof he was leading the way to the discovery of new

the speculum was made, and upon the thickness planets.

of the glass between them.

Newton, This is the reason of the decay of sight in old

2. Assisting sight. Improper. men, and shews why their sight is mended by

The hidden way spectacles.


Of niture wouldst thou know, how first she This day then let us not be told,

frames That you are sick, and I grown old ; Nor think on our approaching ills,

All things in miniature, thy specular orb And talk of spectacles and pills. Swift.

Apply to well-dissected kernels; lo!

In each observe the slender threads PE'CTACLED. adj. [from the noun.] Fur Of first-beginning trees.

Philips nished with spectacles.

To SPE'CULATE. v. n. (speculer, French; All tongues speak of him, and the bleared

speculor, Latin.] To meditate ; to consights

Sbak.peare Are spectacled to see him.

template ; to take a view of any thing

with the mind. SPECTA'tion. n. s. [spectatio, Laimn.] Consider the quantity, and not speculate upon Regard ; respect.

an intrinsecal relation.

Digby. This simple spectation of the lungs is differ As news-writers record facts which afford enced from that which concomitates a pleurisy. great matter of speculation, their readers specie

Harvey. late accordingly, and, by their variety of conjecSPECTA'TOR. n. s. [spectateur, French ; tures, become consummate statesmen. Addison.

spectator, Latin.] A looker-on; a be- I. SFE'CULATE. v. a. To consider attenholder.

tively ; to look through with the mind. More

Man was not meant to gape, or look upward, Than history can pattern, though devis'd

but to have his thoughts sublime; and not only And play'd to take spectators. Sbakspeare. behold, but speculate their nature with the eye If it proves a good repast to the spectators, the of the understanding.

Brown. dish pays the shot.

Sbakspeare. SrecULA'TioN. n. s. [speculation, Fr. from An old gentleman mounting on horseback, got

speculate.] up heavily; but desired the spectators that they would count fourscore and eight before they

1. Examination by the eye ; view. Dryden.

2. Examiner ; spy. This word is found Hie mourns his former vigour lost so far, no where else, and probably is here mis. To make him now spectator of a war. Dryden. printed for speculator.

What pleasure hath the owner more than the They who have, as who have not, whom their spectator?


great stars SPECTA'TORSHIP. n. s. [from spectator.] Throne and set high? servants Act of beholding:

Which are to France the spies and speculations, Thou stand'st i' th' state of hanging, or of Intelligent of our state. Shakspeare's King Lear. some death more long in spectatorsbip, and cru 3. Mental view; intellectual examination ; eller in suffering.

contemplation. SPE'CTRE, n. s. [spectre, Fr. spectrum, In all these things being fully persuaded, that Latin.]

what they did, it was obedience to the will of 1. Apparition ; appearance of persons

God, and that all men should do the like; there

remained, after speculation, practice whereunto dead.

the whole world might be framed. Hosker. The ghosts of traitors from the bridge de Thenceforth to speculations high or deep scend,

I turn'd my thoughts; and with capacious mind With bold fanatick spestres to rejoice. Dryden.

Consider'd all things visible.


judged him.


News-writers afford matter of speculation, power of expressing thoughts by words,


or vocal sounds. 4. A train of thoughts formed by medi There is none comparable to the variety of intation.

structive expressions by speech, wherewith man From him Socrates derived the principles of alone is endowed, for the communication of his morality, and most part of his natural specula thoughts.

Holder, tions.

Temple. Though our ideas are first acquired by various 5. Mental scheme not reduced to practice.

sensations and reticctions, yet we convey them This terrestrial globe, which before was only

to each other by the means of certain sounds, or round in speculation, has since been surrounded

written marks, which we call words; and a great by the fortune and boldness of many navigators. part of our knowledge is both obtained and com


municated by these means, which are called This is a consideration not to be neglected, or speech.

Watts. thought an indifferent matter of mere specula- 2. Language ; words considered as expresstion.

Lesley. ing thoughts. 6. Power of sight. Not in use.

In speech be eight parts.

Accidence, Thy bones are marrowless; thy blood is cold; The acts of God to human ears Thou hast no speculation in those eyes

Cannot without process of speech be told. Milt. Thou star'st with.

Sbakspeare. 3. Particular language, as distinct from SPE'CULATIVE. adj. [speculatif, French; others. from speculate.]

There is neither speech nor language, but their 1. Given to speculation ; contemplative. voices are heard among them. Ps. Com. Prayer.

If all other uses were utterly taken away, yet 4. Any thing spoken. the mind of man being by nature speculative, and A plague upon your epileptick visage! delighted with contemplation in itself, they were Smile you my speeches as I were a fool? Shaks. to be known even for mere knowledge sake. 5. Talk; mention.


The duke did of me demand It encourages speculative persons, who have no What was the speech among the Londoners, turn of mind to increase their fortunes. Addison.

Concerning the French journey. Sbakspeare, 2. Theoretical ; notional ; ideal; not prac. Speech of a man's self ought to be seldom. Bacon. tical.

6. Oration ; harangue Some take it for a speculative platform, that The constant design of these orators, in all reason and nature would that the best should their speeches, was to drive some one particular govern, but no wise to create a right. Bacon. point,

Stuift. These are not speculative flights, or imaginary 7. Declaration of thoughts. notions, but are plain and undeniable laws, that I, with leave of speech implorid, reply'd. Milte are founded in the nature of rational beings. SPE'Echless. adj. [from speech.]

Law. SPECULATIVELY. adv. [from specula

1. Deprived of the power of speaking :

made mute or dumb. tive.]

He fell down, foamed at month, and was 1. Contemplatively; with meditation.


Sbakspeare. 2. Ideally; notionally; theoretically ; not The great god Pan hath broken his pipes, and practically.

Apollo's priest are become speechless. Raleigh.

A single vision transports them: it finds then SPECULA'TOR. n. s. [from speculate.] in the eagerness and height of their devotion; 1. One who forms theories.

they are speechless for the time that it continues, He is dextrous in puzzling others, if they be and prostrate when it departs.

Dryden. not through-paced speculators in those great Speechless with wonder, and half dead with theories. More, fear.

Addison. 2. speculateur, French.] An observer ; a 2. Mute ; dumb. contemplator.

I kneel'd before him; Although lapidaries and questuary enquirers 'T was very faintly he said rise: dimiss'd me affirm it, yet the writers of minerals, and natu Thus, with his speechless hand. Shakspeare. ral speculators, conceive the stones which bear

From her eyes this name to be a mineral concretion. Brown.

I did receive fair speechless messages. Skaksp. 3. A spy; a watcher.

He chat never hears a word spoken, it is no All the boats had one speculator, to give notice

wonder he remain spercbless; as any one must when the fish approached.


do, who from an infant should be bred up SPECULATORY. adj. [from speculate.] TO SPEED. v.n. pret. and part. pass. sped

among mutes.

Holder, Exercising speculation.

and speeded. (spoeden, Dutch.) SPECULUM. n. s. (Latin.] A mirror;

1. To make haste; to move with celerity: a looking-glass; that in which repre So well they sped, that they be come at length sentations are formed by reflection. Unto the place whereas the Paynim lay

A rough and coloured object may serve for a Devoid of outward sense and native strength, speculum, to reflect the artificial rainbow. Boyle. Cover'd with charmed cloud from view of day! Sped. The pret. and part. pass. of speed.

Fairy Queen. His horse full of windgalls, sped with the spa


think me a swallow, an arrow, or a vins, and rayed with the yellows. Sbakspeare.

bullet? Have I, in my poor and cold motion, Barbarossa, sped of that he desired, staid not

the expedition of thought? I speeded hither with long at Constantinople, but shaped his course

the very extremest inch of possibility. Sbaksp. Knolles.

If pray'rs With all his harness soon the god was sped;

Could alter high decrees, I to that place His fiying hat, his wings upon his heels. Dryden.

Would speed before thee, and be louder heard.

Milton. Speech. n. s. [from speak.]

See where Idwall speeds ! a trusty soldier. 1. The power of articulate utterance; the

A. Pbilips

towards Italy.

no better,


2. [rpedian, to grow rich, Saxon.] TO SPEED: n. s. [spoed, Dutch.] have good success.

1. Quickness; celerity.
Timon is shrunk, indeed;

Earth receives
And he, that 's once denied, will hardly speed. As tribute, such a sumless journey brought


Of incorporeal speed, her warmth and light; Now if this suit lay in Bianca's pow'r,

Speed! to describe whose swiftness number fails. How quickly should you speed. Sbakspeare.

Milton. When first this ompter cross'd the gulph from We observe the horse's patient service at the hell,

plough, his speed upon the highway, his docibleI told you then he should prevail, and speed. ness, and desire of glory.

More. In his bad errand.


2. Haste; hurry; dispatch. 3. To succeed well or ill.

When they strain to their utmost speed, there Make me not sighted like the basilisk:

is still the wonted distance between them and I've look'd on thousands, who have sped the cheir aims: all their eager pursuits bring them better

no acquests.

Decay of Piets. By my regard, but kill'd none so. Shakspeare.

Macicaus showed them what an offence it was 3. The course or pace of a horse. rashly to depart out of the city, which inight be He that rides at high speed, and with a pistol unto them dangerous, although they should speed

kills a sparrow flying.

Sbakspcar! never so well.

Knolles. 4. Success; event of any action or inci. These were violators of the first temple ; and dent. those that profaxed and abused the second, sped

The prince your son, with mere conceit and

Souil. 4. To have any condition, good or bad. Of the queen's speed, is gone.

Sbarspeare. Ships heretofore in seas like fishes sped,

O Lord, I pray thee send me good speed. The mightiest still upon the smallest fed.

STE'EDILY. adv. [from speedy.]

With TO SPEED. V. a.

haste; quickly. 1. To dispatch in haste; to send away

Post speedily

; to your husband, quickly.

Shew him this letter.

Sbakspeare. The tyrant's self, a thing unus'd, began To feel his heart relent with meer compassion ;

Send speedily to Bertran; charge him strictly Not to proceed.

Dryden. But, not dispos'd to ruth or mercy then, He sped him thence home to his habitation. SPE'EdiNESS. n. s. [from speedy.] The

Fairfax. quality of being speedy. 2. To hasten ; to put into quick motion. SpE'E DWELL. n. so (veronica, Latin.) A She,

plant ; fuellin. Hearing so much, will speed her foot again,

In a scarcity in Silesia a rumour was spread of Led hither by pure love.


its raining millet seed; but it was found to be Satan, tow'rd the coast of earth beneath, only the seeds of the ivy-leaved speedweli, or Down from th' ecliptick sped with hop'd success, small henbic.

Derbar. Throws his steep flight in many an airy wheel.

Milton. SPE’ED Y. adj. [from speed.] Quick; swift; The priest replied no more,

nimble; quick of dispatch. But sped his steps along the hoarse resounding How near 's the other army? shore.

Dryder. -Near, and on speedy foot: the niain descry 3. To furnish in haste.

Stands on the hourly thought.

Sbakspears 4. To dispatch; to destroy ; to kill; to

Back with speediest sail mischief; to ruin.

Zophiel, of cherubim the swiftest wing,
Came flying.

With a speeding thrust his heart he found;
The lukewarm blood came rushing through the

Let it be enough what thou hast done,

When spotted deaths ran arm'd through ev'ry wound.

Dryden. A dire dilemma! either way I'm sped;

street, If focs they write, if friends they read, me dead.

With poison'd darts, which not the good could


Pope. s. To execute; to dispatch.

The speedy could outfly, or valiant meet. Dryd. Judicial acts are all those writings and matters SPEIGHT, n. so (picus martius, Latin.) which relate to judicial proceedings, and are spod A bird. in open court at the instance of one or both of the parties.


SPELL. 1. s. (rpel, Saxon, a word.] 6. To assist; to help forward.

1. A charm consisting of some words of Lucina

occult power. Thus Horace uses words: Reach'd her midwife hands to speed the throcs. Sunt verba & voces quibus hunc lenire


dolorem Propitious Neptune steer'd their course by · Possis. night

Start not; her actions shall be holy: With rising gales, that sped their happy fight.


You hear my spell is lawful: do not shun her, Speed the soft intercourse from soul to soul,

Until you see her die again; for then

You kill her double. And waft a sigh from Indus to the pole. Pope.


Some have delivered the polity of spirits, that 7. To make prosperous ; to make to suc they stand in awe of charms, spells, and conjuraceed.

tions, letters, characters, notes, and dashes. If any bring not this doctrine, receive him not

Brows. into your house, neither bid him God speed. Thou durst not thus disparage glorious arms,

St. Paul.

Had not spells He was chosen, though he stood low upon the And black enchantments, some magician's art, roll, by a very unusual concurrence of provi Arm'd thee or charm'd thee strong. dential cytills, happened to be spoil. Fall, Begin, begin; the mystick spell prepare. With

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