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a sour countenance.

with astringency, as vinegar, or unripe They keep out melancholy from the virtuous, fruit.

and hinder the hatred of vice from souring into severity.

Addison, All sour things, as vinegar, provoke appetite.


If I turn my eyes from them, or seem disTheir drink is sour.

pleased, they sour upon it.

But let the bounds of licences be fix'd ; SOURCE. n. s. [source, Fr.]
Not things of disagreeing natures mix'd,

1. Spring; fountain ; head. Not sweet with sour, nor birds with serpents

Kings that rule join'd.

Dryden. Behind the hidden sources of the Nile. Addison. Both ways deceitful is the wine of pow'r; When new 't is heady, and when old 't is sowr.

2. Original ; first cause. Harte.

This second source of men, while yet but few,

With some regard to what is just and right 2. Harsh of temper; crabbed; peevish; Shall lead their lives.

Milton. morose ; severe.

This is the true source and original of this misHe was a scholar, chief.

South. Lofty and sour to them that lov'd him not.

Of himself is none;

Sbakspeare. But that eternal Intinite, and One, A man of pleasant and popular conversation, Who never did begin, who ne'er can end, rather free than sour and reserved. Wotton. On him all beings, as their source, depend. Tiberius, otherwise a very s0.19 man, would

Dryden. punctually perform this rite unto others, and 3. First producer. expect the same.


Famous Greece, 3. Affictive; painful.

That source of art and cultivated thought, Let me embrace these sour adversities;

Which they to Rome, and Romans hither, For wise men say it is the wisest course. Shaks. brought.

Waller. 4. Expressing discontent.

SO'UR DET. n. s. [from sourd, Fr.] The He said a sour thing to Laura the other day. little pipe of a trumpet.


SO'URISH. adj. [from sour.] Somewhat Sullen and sour, with discontented mien Jocasta frown'd.

Pope. The lord treasurer often looked on me with

By distillation we obtain a sourisb spirit, which

will dissolve coral. Swift.

Bozle. SOUR. n. s. [from the adjective.] Acid So'urly, adv. [from sour.

r.] substance.

1. With acidity. A thousand sours to temper with one sweet, 2. With acrimony. To make it seem more dear and dainty. Spenser.

The stern Athenian prince To SOUR. v. a.

Then sourly smil'd.

Dryden. SO'URNESS. n. s. [from sour.

] 1. To make acid. His angelick nature had none of that carnal

1. Acidity; austereness of taste. leven which ferments to the souring of ours.

Sourness consisteih in some grossness of the Decay of Picty.

body; and incorporation doth make the mixture Thus kneaded up with milk, the new made of the body more equal, which inducerh a milder

Bacen. His kingdom o'er his kindred world began;

l'th'spring, like youth, it yields an acid taste; Till knowledge misapplied, misunderstood, But summer doth, like age, the sourness waste.

Denban. And pride of empire, sour d his balmy blood.


He knew One passion, with a different turn,

For fruit the grafted pear-tree to dispose, Makes wit intame or anger burn:

And rame to plums the sourness of the sloes. So the sin's heat, with diff'rent pow'rs

Dryder. Ripens the grape, the liquor sours. Swift. Of acid or sour one has a notion from taste, 2. To mate harsh, or unkindly.

sourness being one of those simple ideas which

Mortimer. Tufts of grass sour land.


one cannot describe. 3. To make uncasy; to make less pleasing.

Has life no sourness, drawn so near its end?

Pope. Hail, great king! To sour your happiness, I must report

2. Asperity; harshness of temper. The queen is deid.


Pelagius carped at the curious neatness of He brought envy, malice, and ambition, into

men's apparel in those days, and, through the Paradise, which sourid to him the sweetness of

sourness of his disposition, spoke somewhat too the place.

hardly thereof.

Hooker. 4. To make discontented.

He was never thought to be of that superstiNot my own disgrace

tious sourness, which some men pretend to in

religion. Hath ever made me sour my patient cheek,

King Cbarless Or bend one wrinkle on my sov'reign's face.

Her religion is equally free from the weakShahsgeare.

ness of superstition and the sourness of enthuThree crabbed months had sour'd themselves

siasın : it is not of an uncomfortable melancholy

Addison, to draih,

Take care that no sourness and moroseness Ere I could make thee open thy white hand.


mingle with our serious frame of mind. Neison. In me, as yet, ambition had no part;

SO'URSOP. n. s. [guanabanus, Lat.] CusPride had not sowrd, nor wrath debas'd, my tard-apple. heart.

Herte. It grows in several parts of the SpanTO SOUR. v. n.

ish West-Indies, where it is cultivated for its fruits.

Miller. 1. To become acid.

Asses miik, "hen it sours in the stomach, and Sous. n. s. [sol, Fr.] A small denomi. whey turned sour, will purge strongly. Arbuth.

nation of money. 2. To grow peevish or crabbed.

Souse. n. so [soute, salt, Dutch.]




1. Pickle made of salt.

Mean while the south wind rose, and with 2. Any thing kept parboiled in salt pickle.

black wings, And he that can rear up a pig in his house,

Wide hovering, all the clouds together drove.

Milton. Hath cheaper his bacon, and sweeter his souse.

Tusser. SOUTH. adv. All-saints, do lay for pork and souse,

1. Toward the south. For sprats and spurlings for

rhouse. Tusser..

His regiment lies half a mile
To Souse. v. a. (from the noun.]

Soutb from the mighty power of the king.

Sbakspeare. 1. To parboil, or steep in pickle.

2. From the south. Oil, though it stink, they drop by drop im Such fruits as you appoint for long keeping, part ;

gather in a fair and dry day, and when the wind But souse the cabbage with a bounteous heart.

bloweth not south.

Becon. Pope. 2. To throw into water. A ludicrous SOUTHEA'St. n. s. [south and east.] The

point between the cast and south; the sense. They soused me into the Thames with as little

point of winter sunrise. remorse as they drown blind puppies. Sbaksp.

The planting of trees warm upon a wall Who those were that run away,

against the south or southeast sun, doth hasten And yet gave out th' had won the day;

their ripening.

Bacon. Although the rabble souts'd them for 't

The ihree seas of Italy, the Inferiour towards O'er head and cars in mud and dirt. Butler.

the south:11st, the lonian towards the south, and They soused me over head and ears in water

the Adriatick on the northeast side, were comwhen a boy, so that I am now one of the most

manded by three different nations. Arbuthnot. case-hardened of the Ironsides. Addison.

SOʻUTHERLY. adj. [from south.] TO SOUSE. v. n. [Of this word I know

1. Belonging to any of the points denonot the original : it must come from

minated from the south; not absolutely sous, or dessous, down, Fr.] To fall as

southern. a bird on its prey.

2. Lying toward the south. Thus on some silver swan, or tim'rous bare,

Únto such as live under the pole, that is only Jove's bird comes sousing down from upper air ;

north which is above them, that is only southerly Her crooked talons truss the fearful prey,

which is below them.

Brown. Then out of sight she soars.


Two other country bills give us a view of the Jove's bird will souse upon the tim'rous hare,

most casterly, westerly, and southerly parts of And tender kids with his sharp talons tear.


Graunt. Dryden, jun. 3. Coming from about the south. TO SOUSE. v. a.

I am but moad north, northwest : when the To strike with sudden violence, as a bird strikes his prey.

wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handa

Sbukspeare. The gallant monarch is in arms; SO'UTHERN. adj. [ruderne, Sax. from And like an eagle o'er his airy tow'rs, To souse annoyance that comes near his nest.

south.) Shakspeare.

1. Belonging to the south; meridional. Souse, adv. With sudden violence. A

Frowning Auster seeks the southern sphere,

And rots with endless rain th'unwholsome year. low word.

Dryden. Such make a private study of the street, 2. Lying toward the south. And, looking full at ev'ry, man they meet,

Why mourn I not for thee, Run souse against his chaps, who stands amaz'd, And with the southern clouds contend in tears? To find they did not see, but only gaz'd. Toung.

Sbakspeare. SO'UTERRAIN. ». s. (souterrain, Fr.) A 3. Coming from the south.

grotto or cavern in the ground. Not Men's bodies are heavier when southern winds English.

blow than when northern.

Bacon. Defences against extremities of heat, as shade, SO'UTHERNWOOD. n. s. (ruðernpudu, grottos, or souterrains, are necessary preserva Sax. abrotanum, Lat.) A plant that tives of health.


agrees in most parts with the worm. SOUTH. n. s. (ruð, Sax. sugd, Dutch; wood, from which it is not easy to sesud, French.]

Miller. 1. The part where the sun is to us at So’UTHING. adj. [from south.] Going tovoon : opposed to north.

ward the south. East and west have no certain points of hea.

I will conduct thee on thy way, ven, but north and south are fixed; and seldom When next the soulbing sun inflames the day: the far southern people have invaded the north

Dryden. ern, but contrariwise.

Bacon. So'utHiNG. n. s. Tendency to the south. 2. The southern regions of the globe. Not far from hence, if I observ'd aright The queen of the south.

Bible. The southing of the stars and polar light,
From the north to call

Sicilia lies.

Dryden. Decrepit winter, from the south to bring SO'OTHMOST. adj. [from south.] Furthest Solstitial summer's heat.

Milton. toward the south. 3. The wind that blows from the south. Next Chemos, th' obscene dread of Moab's All the contagion of the south light on you,

sons, You shames of Rome, you ! Shakspeare.

From Aroar to Nebo, and the wild SOUTH, adj. [from the noun.] Southern; Of southmost Abarim.

Milton. meridional,

SO’UTHSAY. n. so [properly soothsay.] One inch of delay more is a south sea. Sbaks. Prediction. How thy garments are

warm, when he

All those were idle thoughts and fantasies, quicteth the earth by the south wind. job, Devices, dreams, opinions unsound,


parate it,

in you.

Shews, visions, southsays, and prophecies, And all that feigned is, as leasings, tales, and lies.

Fairy Queen. T. SO'UTHSAY. V. n. (See SooTHSAY.] To predict.

Young men, hovering between hope and fear, might easily be carried into the superstition of soutbsuying by names.

Camden. SO'UTHSAYER. 1. s. (properly soothsager.

See SOOTHSAYER.) A predicter. SO'UTHWAR D. adv. [from south.] Toward the south.

A prisoner in a room twenty foot square, is at liberty to walk twenty foot southward, but not northward.

Locke. Every life, from the dreary months, Flies conscious southward.

Thomson. So'UTHWARD. N. so The southern re


Countries are more fruitful to the southward than in the northern parts.

Raleigh. SOUTHWE'st. n. s. [south and west.]

Point between the south and west ; winter sunset.

Phenice is an haven of Crete, and liech toward the southwest,

Acis. The planting of trees warm upon a wall against the south or southeast sun, doth hasten their coming on and ripening; and the southeast is found to be better than the soutbwest, though

the southwest be the hotter coast. Bacon. SOʻUVENANCE. n. s. [French.] Re

membrance; memory. A French word which, with many more, is now happily disused.

If thou wilt renounce thy miscreance, Life will I grant thee for thy valiance, And all thy wrongs will wipe out of my souve

Spenser. Gave wond'rous great countenance to the

knight, That of his way he had no souvenance, Nor care of vow'd revenge.

Spenser. Sow. n. s. (ruzi, Saxon ; soeg, souwe,

Dutch.] 1. A female pig ; the female of a boar.

Boars have great fangs, sozus much less. Bac.

A scu beneath an oak shall lie along, All white herself, and white her thirty young.

Dryden. For which they scorn and hate them worse Than dogs and cats do sow gelders. Hudibras.

The sove geider's horn has something musical in it, but this is seldom heard. Spectator. 2. Perhaps from sow might come sowen, swen, swine ; rpina, Saxon.

And wast thou fain
To hovel thee with swine, and rogues forlorn,

In short and musty straw? Sbakspeure. 3. An oblong mass of lead. Ainsworth. 4. (millepeda, Lat.] An insect; a millepede.

Ainsworth. SO'WBREAD. 1. s. (cyclumert, Lat.) A

plant. TO SOW. v. n. (saian, Gothick; sapan,

Sax. saeyen, Dutch.] To scatter seed in order to a harvest.

The one belongeth unto them that seek, the other unto them that have found, lappiness: they that pray do but yet sow, they that give thanks declare they have reaped.

Hocker. They that sow in tears shall reap in joy.

Palms. He that soweth to his flesh shall reap corrupo

tion; but he that soweth to the spirit shall reap life everlasting.

Galatians. Sow to yourselves in righteousness, and reap in mercy.

Hosea. To Sow. v. a. part. pass. sown. 1. To scatter in the ground, in order to growth; to propagate by seed.

Like was not to be found, Save in that soil where all good things did grow,

And freely sprung out of the fruitful ground As incorrupted nature did them sow. Fairy l.

From Ireland come I with my strength, And reap the harvest which that rascal sow'd.

Shakspeare I sow my law in you, and it shall bring fruit

2 Esdras. Many plants which grow in the hotter countries, being set in the colder, will, being sorun of seeds late in the spring, come up, and abide most part of the summer.

Bacon. When to turn The fruitful soil, and when to sow the corn, I sing, Mecænas.

Dryden. The proud mother views her precious brood, And happier branches, which she never sow'd.

Dryden. 2. To spread; to propagate.

Frowardness is in his heart: he deviseth mischief continually, he soweth discord. Proverbs. To sow a jangling noise of words unknown.

Milton. Since then they stand secur'd by being join'd, 'T were worthy a king's head to sow division, And seeds of jealousy, to loose those bonds.

Rowe. Born to amict my Marcia's family, And sew dissension in the hearts of brothers.

Addison. 3. To impregnate or stock with seed.

He shall give the rain of thy secd, that thou shalt sow the ground withal.

Isajab. The intellectual faculty is a goodly field, capable of great improvement, and it is the worst husbandry in the world to sow it with trifles or impertinencies.

Hol. 4. To besprinkle. He sow'd with stars the heav'n, thick as a field.

Milton. Morn new sow'd the earth with orient pearl.

Milten. To Sow. v. a. [for sew.

v.] To join by needlework. Some tree, whose broad smooth leaves to

gether sow'd, And girded on, may cover round.

Milton. To SOWCE. v. a.

To throw into the water. See Souse. He sowed me up to the middle in the pond.

L'Estrange. SO'WER. n. s. [from sow. ] 1. He that sprinkles the seed.

A sorver went forth to sow. Mattbew.
It is thrown round, as grain by a skilful sower.

Derbami 2. A scatterer.

Terming Paul and his doctrine a sower of words, a very babbler or trifler. 3. A breeder; a promoter.

They are sowers of suits, which make the court swell, and the country pine. SO'WINS, n. s. Flummery, made of oatmeal somewhat soured.

These sowins, that is, fummery, being blended together, produce good yeast,

Mortimer. See where Norah with the sow ins comes. Sseift. TO SOWL. v. a. [from sow, as hogs are





pulled by dogs, Skinner ; from sok, a Sith for me ye fighe, to me this grace strap, a rein, Kennet.] To pull by the

Both yicid, to stay your deadly strite a spare

Fairy Queessa ears.

Compassion quell'd He 'll go and soul the porter of Rome gates

His best of man, and gave hm up to tears by the ears.


A space, til firmer thouzaos reaind excess. Sown. The par-iciple of sow. It is used

Mutton. barbarousiy by Swift for saqued. SPACIOUS, adj. (spacieux, Fr. spariusss, A goodly country, naturally beautified with

Lat.] Wide; extensive ; roumy; not roses, sown with pease.

Haylin. An hundred and fifty of their beds, sown to

The former buildings, which were but menn, gether, made up the breadth and length.


contented them not: spacious and ample churches

Ciley erected throughout tvery city. Hooker, SO'WTHISTLE. n. s. [sonchius, Latin.) A

Convey your pleases in a scious plecy, wred.

And yet seem cold.

Shudsposte. Sowtbistles though coneys eat, yet sheep and Merab with spacious beauty fills the sight, cattle will not touch: the milk of which, rubbed But too much asc ciastis'd:he buld delight. on warts, wearith them away, which sheweth

Cowly. it is corrosive.


Like an English gen’ral will I die, SPAA), n so stella terra, Lat.] A kind And all the ocean inake my spa:1945 grave : of mineral.

Women and co'yards on the land may lie; English talc, of which the coarser sort is called

The sea 's a tomb that 's proper for the brave. plaister; the finer, spaud, earth-nax, or sala

Drytea. mander's hair.

Iloudrrard. Spaciously, adv. [from spacious.] ExSPACE. 9. s. (spatium, Lat.]

tensively. 1. Room ; local extension.

SPACIOUSNESS, 1. s. [from spacious.} Space is the relation of distance between any two bodies or points.


Roominess; wide extension. Oh undistinguish'd space of woman's wit! SPA'DDLE. 1. so (diminutive of spade) A


little spade. This which yields or fills all space.

Milten. Others destroy moles with a sfiddl, waiting Pure space is capable neither of resistance nor in the mornings and evenings for them. motion. Locke.

Mort met Space and motion can never be actually inti SPADE. n. s. (rpad, Sax. spade, Island. nite: they have a power only and a capacity of ick and Dutch] being increased without end: so that no space can be assigned so vast, but still a larger may be

1. The instrument of digging.

Take the air of the earth nert turned up, by imagined ; no motion so swift or languid, but a greater velocity or slowness may still be con

digging with the spade, or standing by hun thro ceived.



Many learned men affirm, that some istines 2. Any quantity of place. I would not be the villain that thou think'st

have been eat through by the sea, and others cut by the spode.

Brown, For the whole space that 's in the tyrant's grasp, His next advance was to the coldier's trade; And the rich east to boot.

Sbakspeare. Where, if he did not niinbly ply the soude, There was but two ways to escape; the one

His surly officer ne'er fail'd to crack through the woods, about ten miles space to Walpo.

His knotty cudgel on his tougher back.

Dryd. Knolles.

Here nature never diff'rence made In such a great ruin, where the fragments are

Between the sceptre and the spide. Swift. great and hard, it is not possible they should be so adjusted in their fall, but that they would lie

2. A deer three years old. Airistorih. hollow, and many unfilled spaces would be inter

3. A sult of cards. cepted amongst them.

Burnet. SPA'DEBONE, n. s. [named from the Measuring first with careful eyes

form.] The shoulderblade. The space his spear could reach, aloud he cries.


By th' shoulder of a ram from off the right side

par'd, 3. Quantity of time.

Which usually they boil, the spade-bone being There is a competent time allowed every bar'd.

Drzyton. man; and, as it is certain death is the conclus sion of it, 't is possible some space before death.

SPADI'CEOU's. adj. [spudiceus, Lat. Os Hammond,

a light red. Nine times the space that measures day and

Of those five Scaliger beheld, though one was night

spadiceous, or of a light red, and two inclining to To mortal men, he with his horrid crew

red, yet was there not any of this complexion

Browr. Lay vanquish'd, rolling in the fiery gulph, Confounded, though immortal. Wilton. SPADILLE. n. s. (spadille, or espordille,

In a lever the motion can be continued only Fr.] The ace of spades at ombre. for so short a space, as may be answerable to SPAGYRICK. adj. (spagyricus, Lat. А. that little distance betwixt the fulciment and

word coined by Paracelsus from spaberg the weight.

Willins. God may dcfer his judgments for a time, and

a searcher, Teutonick.) Chymical. give a people a longer space of repentance: he

SPAGYRIST. n. s. A chymist. may stay till the iniquities of a nation be full; This change is su unexarceled, that though but sooner or later they have reason to expect among the more curious spelen yrists it be very his vengeance.

Tillotson. welknau 11, yes many naturalists caninos easily The lives of great men cannot be writ with believe it.

Buke any there's degree of engance or exactress, $? AKE.. The old preterit of speak,

with a short systemier their deceuse. Audison, So sto che anchangul Ibarhnel, with pas. 4. A siden a while.

among them.


SPALL. 11. s. [espaule, Fr.] Shoulder": His chief solace is to steal down,

and play Out of use.

at spanfarthing with the page. Swift. Their mighty strokes their habergions dis TO SPANE. v. a.

To wean a child. may'd, And naked made each other's manly spalles.

SPANG, n. s. [spange, Dut.] This word

Fairfax. seems to have signified a cluster of shinSPALT or Spelt. n. A white, scaly, ing bodies. shining stone, frequently used to pro

The colours that shew best by candlolight are mote the fusion of metals. Bailey.

white, carnation, and a kind of sea-water green; SPAN. n.s. (rpan, sponne, Sax. spanna,

and ouches or spangs, as they are of no great

cost, so they are of most glory. Bacon. · Italian ; span, Dutch. Perhaps origin

SPA'NGLE. n. ally the expansion of the hand.]

s. [spange, German, a 3. The space from the end of the thumb

buckle, a locket; whence ober spangen, to the end of the little finger extended;

ear-rings.] nine inches.

1. A small plate or boss of shining metal. A foot, the length of it, is a sixth part of the 2. Any thing sparkling and shining. fathom; a span, one eighth; a palm, or hand's As hoary frost with spangles doth attire breadth, one twenty-fourth; a thumb's breadth, The mossy branches of an oak half dead. or inch, one seventy-second; and a fore-finger's

firy Queen. breadth, one ninety-sixth.

Holder. Thus in a starry night fond children cry Will you with counters sum

For the rich spangles that adorn the sky. Waller. The vast proportion of his infinite,

The twinkling Spangles, the ornaments of the And buckle in a waste most fathomless,

upper world, lose their beauty and magnifie With spans and inches so diminutive

cence : v!lgar spectators see them but as a conAs fears and reasons ?


fused huddle of petty illuminants. Glanville, Sum how brief the life of man

That now the dew with spangles deek'd the Runs his erring pilgrimage,

ground, That the stretching of a span

A sweeter spot of earth was never found. Dryd. Buckles in his sum of age. Shakspeare. To SPA'NGLE. v. a. (from the noun.) To

When I removed the one, although but at the distance of a pan, the other would stand like

besprinkle with spangles or shining Hercules's pillar.


bodies. 2. Any short duration.

They never meet in grove or green, You have scarce time

By fountain clear, or spangled starlight sheen. To steal from spiritual leisure a brief span,

bakspeare. To keep your earthly audit.

What stars do spangle heaven with such The virgin's part, the mother, and the wite,

beauty, So well she acted in this span of life. Waller.

As those two eyes become that heavenly face. Then conscience, unrestrain’d by fears, began

Shakspeare. To stretch her limits, and extend the span. Dryd.

Unpin that spangled breastplate which you Life's but a span, I 'll every inch enjoy.

wear, Farquhar. That th' eyes of busy fools may be stopt there.

Deant, T. SPAN. v. a.

Four faces each s. To measure by the hand extended.

Had, like a double Janus; all their shape Oft on the well-known spot i fix my eyes,

Spangled with eyes, more numerous than those And span the distance that between us lies.

Of Argus.

Milicn. Tickel.

Then appear'd 2. To measure.

Spangling the liemisphere, then first adorn'a My surveyor is false; the o'er-great cardinal With the bright luminaries, that set and rose. Hath shew'd him gold; my life is spunn'd al

Milton. ready.

Sbakspeare. He cuts out a silk mantle from the skies, This soul doth span the world, and hang Where the most sprigirtly azure pleas'd the eyes;

This he with starry vapours spangles all, From either pole unto the centre;

Took in their prinne, ere they grow, rise, and Where in eacb room of the well-furnish'd tent


Cowley, He lies warm, and without adventure. Herbert. The spacious firmament on high,

farry, whose cunetul and well-measurid song With all the blue etherial sky, First taught our English musick how to span And spangled heav'ns, a shining frame, Words with just note and accert, not to scan Their great Original proclaim.

Spectator. With Adidas ears, counting short and long. Milt. Sean. The preterit of spin.

SPA'NIEL. n. s. [hispaniolus, Lat. espago Together furiously they ran,

neul, French.] That to the ground came horse and man;

dog used for sports in the field, reThe blood out of their helmets span,

markable for sagacity and obedienc". So sharp were tlitir encounters. Drayton. Divers days I followed his steps till I found him, SPA'NCOUNTER. I n. s. [from span,

having newly met with an excellent spaniel beSPA'N FARTHING. S

Sidney. counter, and far

longing to his dead companion.

There are arts to reclaim the wildest men, as hing.] A play at which money is there are to make spanie's ferch and carry: thrown within a span or mark.

chide 'em often, and feed 'em seldom. Dryder. Tell the king, that for his father's sake, 2. A low, mean, sneaking follow ; a cour, Henry v. in whose time boys went to spencen. tier; a dedicator; a pensioner; a de: ter for French crowns, I am content lie shall reign.


pendant ; a placeman. Boys shall not play

I mean sweet words, At sparcounter or blowpoint; but shall pay

Low crooked curtesies, and base spaniel f:*** Toll to some courtier.




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