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and the signal services I had performed in vessels of little force.' This is his own language, and is moderate, compared with the eulogies that flow from his pen when his own merits are the subject. Whether men distrusted or neglected him, or that he fancied he was never sufficiently appreciated, it would appear that the chief employment of his industrious pen was, to compose his own boastful praises. The letter of Congress to its Commissioners is honourable to Jones, and relieves him wholly from the charge of his being in Europe a mere adventurer on the ocean. The Indien, a very fine frigate, then building in Holland, was fixed upon as the ship to be put under Jones's command: and he was, naturally enough, greatly disappointed when the Commissioners changed their intention, and presented it to the King of France. Captain Jones had come to Europe in the command of the Ranger:after the new disposition of the frigate, the commissioners thought proper
employ him in his own vessel in this quarter of the world. They, in fact, sent him on a cruise to do what mischief he could, and to go where he pleased. On the 10th April 1778, he sailed from Brest on that expedition which for some time made him a bugbear on the British coasts, and gave a character of treachery and even atrocity to his general reputation. He made for the spot where he spent his youth, and learned his craft, to destroy it; he then visited the coast on which he had been born, and where his parents dwelt, to carry terror and dismay among the peaceful inhabitants, unsuspicious of the approach of an enemy; in short, he availed himself of all that early experience, which usually renders persons and things sacred, for the purpose of violating them. The world was all before him, where to choose for plunder and destruction, but he preferred to burn the shipping in Whitehaven, because he had been apprenticed there, and was acquainted with the localities ; for similar reasons he sailed, burning and destroying off the coast of Galloway, and landed at St. Mary's Isle, to pillage Lord Selkirk of his plate. On his return from this expedition, Jones wrote his well-known letter to Lady Selkirk, and, as Dr. Franklin said of it, that it was
a gallant letter, which must give her ladyship a high and just opinion of Captain Jones's generosity and nobleness of mind, it no doubt deserved praise." To us, however, it appears conceived in a wretched taste, and utterly unworthy of a person of true bravery. In explaining to Lady Selkirk that his object in besetting her house in order to kidnap her husband that he might be made instrumental to a general discharge of prisoners, and that her plate was taken merely to satisfy his sailors, who would have something, and, had he not limited them to the plate, would have taken more ; he was certainly not called upon to
trumpet forth his own achievements, the more especially, as he was addressing a lady who could not probably take any interest in him, excepting that of regarding him as little better than one of a troop of bandit. Nevertheless, he thus addresses her Ladyship in, what the good doctor calls, this gallant letter;
• Had the Earl been on board the Ranger the following evening (i. e. had I kidnapped him), he would have seen the awful pomp and dreadful carnage of a sea-engagement (very agreeable, no doubt], both affording ample subject for the
pencil, as well as melancholy reflection for the contemplative mind. (He perhaps hints, that if her ladyship had been there with her sketch-book and pocket-handkerchief, it would have been as well.] Humanity starts back from such scenes of horror, and cannot sufficiently execrate the vile promoters of this detestable war.
For they, 'twas they unsheathed the ruthless blade,
And Heaven shall ask the havoc it has made, * The British ship of war, Drake, mounting twenty guns, with more than her full complement of officers and men, was our opponent. The ships met, and the advantage was disputed with great fortitude on each side for an hour and forty minutes, when the gallant commander of the Drake fell, and victory declared in favour of the Ranger. The amiable lieutenant lay mortally wounded, besides nearly forty of the inferior officers and crew killed and wounded.-- A melancholy demonstration of the uncertainty of human prospects, and of the sad reverse of fortune which an hour can produce. I buried them in a spacious grave, with the honours due to the memory of the brave.'
He goes on, after this touch of the heroic, which reminds the reader of a sentimental butcher, and is just as hypocritical as his whining over a newly-killed calf would be, to speak of his favourite topic-himself.
• Though I have drawn my sword in the present generous struggle for the rights of man, yet I am not in arms as an American, nor am I in pursuit of riches. My fortune is liberal enough, having no wife nor family, and having lived long enough to know that riches cannot insure happiness. I profess myself a citizen of the world, totally unfettered by the little, mean distinctions of climate or of country which diminish the benevolence of the heart, and set bounds to philanthropy. Before this war began, I had withdrawn from the sea-service, in favour of “calm contemplation and poetic ease.” I have sacrificed not only my favourite scheme of life, but the softer affections of the heart, and my prospects of domestic happiness; and I am ready to sacrifice my life also, with cheerfulness, if that forfeiture could restore peace and good will to mankind.'
It is a mistake to consider all boasters as cowards, brave men are sometimes great dealers in fanfaronade : which in such cases certainly loses a portion of its disgusting qualities. It is creditable to Jones that he promised to purchase and restore this plate, and at the expense of great trouble and of course of money, performed his promise.
Next year, after a world of tracasserie, Jones succeeded in getting a ship from the French government, and had joined under his command, an American frigate besides some smaller vessels. At the head of this little squadron Jones put to sea and did a good deal of mischief to the coasting trade, and in the course of his cruize fought and captured the English frigate Serapis, Captain Pearson, after an engagement which forms the principal feature of his life. Previous to the late war this combat was the most desperate that has been recorded, in the chronicles of naval warfare. It occurred off Flamborough Head and endured three hours and a half in sight of multitudes who crowded to the edge of the cliffs to view the battle. Jones appears to have managed his ship with judgment, and undoubtedly fought with a reckless bravery, that no danger could daunt. The guns were muzzle to muzzle and the carnage was truly horrible. At the close of the contest when the combatants were precisely in the condition of two mastiff's who have fought till they cannot move a limb, and yet neither will leave his hold, the American vessel, the Alliance, came up to the succour of Jones's ship, the Bon Homme Richard. To the aid given by this frigate the English captain assigns his defeat; whereas captain Jones accuses the commander of it who was assuredly mad and utterly unmanageable, of firing into his ship purposely and doing him much more injury than he did to the enemy. This man, Landais a Frenchman, was afterwards dismissed the American service. Captain Jones though he became master of the Serapis lost his own Bon Homme Richard. She sunk shortly after the action, and he tells us, and we believe him, that he saw her go down with a grief of heart, he cannot describe. The deck of the Bon Homme Richard was the last on which he distinguished himself. On Jones's return to France he took occasion to go to court for the purpose of procuring the prize money to which his crews were entitled. Here he was received with an enthusiasm that would have intoxicated a stronger-minded man. The courtiers fêted him, the ladies made love to him, and the king presented him with a golden sword. Jones himself became a perfect courtier and forgot his poor crew. He returned to his ship armed with his sword of gold and laden with honorary letters, but without a farthing of prize-money. The crew in consequence mutinied and sailed off to America, with the mad Frenchman Landais as their captain. Jones was obliged to follow in the Ariel. He returned to Europe after having exchanged his honorary epistles addressed to America, for American letters on Europe. His ostensible object was the recovery of the prize-money. Mr. Jefferson had, however, recommended him to the Russian Ambassador, and the prizemoney was once more abandoned for the pursuit of glory under Russian colours.
Jones's sanguine expectations of brilliant fortunes in Russia were miserably disappointed. After being flatteringly received by the empress, and raised to the rank of rear Admiral he was sent under Potemkin to oppose the Turks. It is well understood that in Russia it is not always that the honour of success is conferred upon the right person, and Jones may be correct in laying claim to victories said to be gained by others. Some successes he certainly had which were rewarded with disgrace. He was given to understand that he might leave Russia for a time. He returned to Paris and to the last entertained the most sanguine expectation of being recalled by the empress, to active service. At Petersburg where every thing is or was managed by intrigue, Jones was made the subject of one peculiarly base. A party in the court under the paltry idea of gratifying the English government left no effort untried to ruin him with the empress; and they succeeded.
Paul Jones died in Paris on the 18th of June 1792. Dropsy appears to have been the disease which immediately produced death, but it was doubtless only the result of debility and other disease, superinduced by chagrin and disappointment. He was in easy circumstances, had several attached friends about him at the time, but left all he possessed to his relatives in Scotland.
Art. XIV.-1. The Works of William Ellery Channing, D.D.
London. Rainford. 1829. 2. An Essay on the Character and Writings of Fenelon. By W.E.
Channing, D.D. London. 1829. Hunter; Teulon and Fox. 3. Remarks on the disposition which now prevails to form Associa
tions, and to accomplish all objects by Organized Masses. By
William Ellery Channing, D.D. London. 1830. Rainford. THERE is one
topic, among the multitude of things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme,” which is well worthy of the worthiest pen; and by the discussion of which, in a free and philosophic spirit, an important benefit would be conferred upon the community; especially on two very important classes, unenlightened religionists and enlightened sceptics ; we mean the in
tellectual tendencies and influences of Christianity. Nothing, absolutely nothing, has yet been done towards unfolding those "high capacious powers,
” which the Scriptures possess for stimulating and exalting the human mind ; towards depicting their actual operation in past ages; or towards shewing, and thereby directing and accelerating, the effects they should produce on society under all the new circumstances of its present condition, and in the unparalleled progressiveness of its present
But this is no theme for professional Theologians. Generally speaking, they are the last people in the world to intrust such a work to: many of them hold philosophy in ignorant and superstitious abhorrence, as something very heathenish in ancient times, and in modern very revolutionary. The finer minds amongst them are cramped by having been trained in the trammels of a party.
The enthusiastic are imbued with the feelings of the Missionary Student who demurred to learning the Latin grammar because there was nothing spiritual in it. Original and comprehensive views would only encumber those who preach to please the many, who are their hearers, or those who preach to please the few, who are their patrons. And it cannot be expected that articles should be manufactured which are not in demand; or that the requisite skill for their production should be acquired. So the whole tribe goes on saying catechisms, subscribing creeds, repeating homilies, quoting texts, and pacing the mill-round of some dozen doctrines and duties which the wisdom of their ancestors constructed into a never-to-be-improved system. Nothing can be imagined more fatal to mental development than the common routine of clerical education and clerical duty. The evil is not in establishments only. It cleaves just as closely to sectarian bodies. The religious world has committed the grand mistake of alienating itself from the philosophical world. It has been misled by priests into believing that between Faith and Reason there is a natural and everlasting hostility. The methodist parson and the mitred bishop have both an interest at stake in keeping the minds of the people as inert as possible. It suits their convenience and it secures their influence. And if thought cannot be prevented altogether; if it must and will sometimes flash out; the next best thing, in their estimation, is to conduct it safely away from their temples, and let it sport through the air, or dart down to earth’s centre, if it will, so that it do but leave church and chapel untouched, the lank hair unsinged and the plate unmelted. Thus far they have, unhappily, been but too successful, and the nefarious triumph has recoiled upon their own heads. They should, in the spirit and