Farewell to the Party Model?: Independent Local Lists in East and West European Countries
Marion Reiser, Everhard Holtmann Local independent lists as political actors are a common phenomenon on the local level in many European countries – in established Western democracies as well as in the ‘new’ democracies in Central and Eastern Europe. In some West European countries, these non-partisan groups have been an established and stable element in the local political system for decades. Ty- cally, they understand themselves as protectors of a harmonious factual political style. In their opinion, good local politics is not compatible with party politics so they consequently perceive themselves as non-parties. During the last two d- ades, presence and success of local lists have steadily increased in these co- tries. Furthermore, during the last years local lists emerged also in countries which had been formerly fully party-politicised on the local level. Explanations offered for these developments are often based on the observation of a general decline of trust in established parties and politicians. Hence, it has been argued that the disenchantment with political parties is a fertile ground for local lists. For the Central and East European countries, this argument can be - ployed only to a certain extent. Local lists established themselves in the early 1990’s as important actors on the local level especially due to a lack of party organisation in the process of democratic consolidation.
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List of Contributors
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2001 elections 2006 local election active analysis Boogers cartels CEA’s cities citizen’s groups citizens civil parishes communities context Copus councillors Croatia Czech Republic democracy East elec elections electoral law electoral system established parties Estonia faction leaders factors formation function Göhlert Holtmann ideological Ill’s important independent candidates independent lists independent local lists inhabitants institutional interests issues Jüptner Kopriü large municipalities Lower Saxony main parties major mandates mayor membership national parties national political parties nominal non-partisan lists non-party lists North-Rhine-Westphalia number of seats parliament parliamentary participation partisan party branches party lists party politics party system party’s percent political associations political culture political organisations political parties political system politicians presence and success present regional relevance representative Reynaert Riigikogu role self-government small municipalities small parties Social Democrat Steyvers structure Table tion tional total number types voters Wallonia West Germany Zagreb