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the hiring or harboring free negroes or mulattoes emigrating into the State; negroes and mulattoes removing and remaining without the State longer than thirty days, unless they deposit with the clerk of the county a written statement of their object in doing so, and their intention of returning, or unless detained by sickness or coercion, of which they shall bring a certificate,' are to be regarded as residents of another State ; but nothing in this act shall be construed to prevent any free negro or mulatto from visiting Liberia and returning to the State; nor shall the preceding provisions extend to any free negro or mulatto, that may be engaged in navigating any vessel under a white commander, or any waggoner or hired servant travelling with his master or employer. The act also prohibits the importation of slaves 'for sale or to reside in this State;' forbids free persons of color to keep arms without obtaining a license; restricts their assembling for religious purposes, &c.

Ch. 249.-Oysters. An act was passed 'for the protection of oysters in the waters of the Eastern shore of this state.'

Revolutionary Soldiers. Pensions were granted to thirty revolutionary soldiers or widows of revolutionary soldiers.

Railroads. Six railroad companies were incorporated. The Baltimore and Port Deposit Railroad Company was incorporated, with a capital stock of $ 1,000,000. The Delaware and Maryland Railroad Company was incorporated, for the construction of a railroad from some point on the Delaware and Maryland line to Port Deposit, or any other point on the Susquehanna River; its capital is $3,000,000. A resolution was passed recommending a meeting of the stockholders of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company, to consider the proposal of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company for the joint construction of the two works from the Point of Rock to Harper's Ferry. An act was also passed in relation to the railroad from Baltimore to Washington.

Roads. Numerous acts were passed in relation to different roads. An act was passed providing for the preservation of that part of the National Road, lying within the limits of Maryland, as soon as the consent of the General Government shall be obtained; the road is to be taken under the care of Maryland ; toll houses are to be erected, &c.

Savings Institutions. Five Savings Institutions were incorporated.

No. 32.- Susquehanna River. By this resolution, the governor is requested to take such measures as he, with the advice of the council, 'may deem expedient, to prevent the reconstruction or

repair of the Muncy and Shamokin dams, in the Susquehanna River, in Pennsylvania, which obstructions to the free navigation of said river have been recently carried away.'

Ch. 102.-Steam Saw Mill Company. The Baltimore and Chesapeake Steam Saw Mill Company was incorporated, with a capital stock of $ 200,000.

Ch. 166.— Towing Company. The Baltimore and Chesapeake Steam Towing Company was incorporated; the object of this company is 'to promote, by the aid of steam vessels, the safe and speedy navigation of vessels sailing to and from the port of Baltimore, to keep open and unobstructed, at all seasons of the year, the navigation to and from said port, and to afford facilities to owners of stranded or wrecked vessels, or others interested in securing the cargoes of such vessels ;' the capital stock is $25,000, with liberty to increase it to any amount not exceeding $100,000.

Ch. 59.— Transportation Company. The Baltimore and Wheeling Transportation Company was incorporated, with a capital stock of $ 200,000.

Ch. 239.- Weights. This act was passed to regulate the weight of quercitron and all other ground bark, sumach and all other articles sold by weight in this state,' and provides that one hundred pounds shall be taken and considered as one hundred weight, and that twenty hundred be considered and taken for one ton.'


Acts passed at the thirteenth annual session of the General Assembly of Alabama, begun at Tuscaloosa on November 3, 1831.

Academies. An act was passed, providing that all houses and lots of land, held by any incorporated academy, shall not hereafter be liable to the payment of any tax for either state, county, or corporation purposes, so long as the same shall be held and occupied by any company for the purpose of schools. The trustees of three academies were incorporated.

Bank. An act was passed to establish a branch of the Bank of the State of Alabama, at such place as shall be determined on by a joint vote of both houses of the General Assembly; and the credit of the state is pledged for the redemption of all notes issued, and all debts contracted by the branch bank.

Courts. If in any suit commenced in any county court, any of the parties shall be related to the judge of the court by affinity or consanguinity, the judge is authorized to order the cause to be transferred to the circuit court of the county.

The powers of the supreme court are to be, hereafter, vested in three judges, who are to be elected by the joint vote of both houses of the General Assembly, and to hold their offices during the term of six years; at their first session, they are to appoint one of their own body Chief Justice; in case of his absence at any succeeding time, one of the judges present shall be appointed Chief Justice pro tempore; they are to receive an annual salary of $1700 each.

Churches. The several churches in the state and the land 'on which they are erected, not exceeding two acres of land to each, are to be exempt from taxation for state, county or corporation purposes; provided that the lands so exempted, shall belong to and be the property of the citizens of the United States, and shall be used for the purposes of religious worship and no other, except for the use of schools, and as burying grounds attached to said churches.'

Divorces. The several circuit courts are invested with authority to decree divorces, in the following cases: 'in favor of the husband, where his wife shall have been taken in adultery, or voluntarily left his bed and board for the space of three years, with intention of abandonment; and in favor of the wife, where her husband shall have left her for the space of three years, with intention of abandonment, or where he shall have abandoned her and lived in adultery with another woman, or where his treatment to her is cruel, barbarous and inhuman.'

Digest of the Laws. Provision is made for digesting all the statute laws of a public and general nature now in force in the state.'

Florence Bridge Company. A company was incorporated to build a bridge over the Tennessee River at Florence.

Free persons of color, slaves, fc. The judge of the county court, together with two justices of the peace to be associated with him, or in case there shall be no judge of the county court, then any three justices of the peace, shall constitute a court for the trial of all slaves and free persons of color, 'charged with any crime or misdemeanor of a higher grade than petit larceny.' In all trials under this act it shall be sufficient for the solicitor, or the counsel appointed by the court to prosecute, 'to write out a brief statement of the nature of the crime or misdemeanor charged against the defendant, and sign his name thereto, and no indictment or presentment shall be necessary. If at any court 'held

under this act, the solicitor of the circuit shall not be present, the court shall appoint counsel to prosecute;' and if the owner of any slave prosecuted under this act, shall not employ counsel to defend him, the court are required to appoint counsel for that purpose, whose fee, amounting to the sum of ten dollars, shall be paid by the owner of said slave; and if any free person of color prosecuted under this act, shall be unable to employ counsel to defend him or her, it shall be the duty of the court to appoint counsel for this purpose, whose fee amounting to the sum of ten dollars, shall be paid out of the county treasury.' If any slave or free person of color, shall be found guilty of any capital crime, 'there shall not be less than five nor more than ten days between the day of passing sentence and the day of execution, except in cases of conspiracy, insurrection or rebellion, when the sentence of the court may be executed forthwith.'

An act was passed prohibiting the introduction of slaves into the state; but emigrants may bring their own slaves; and the same privilege is granted to heirs, legatees, and legal distributees of any estate of any deceased person,' being citizens of the state, who may have become the owners of slaves, by inheritance, will, &c.; guardians may introduce the slaves of their wards; executors and administrators, whose testator or intestate was a resident citizen of the state, such slaves as belonged to him at the time of his death; and husbands, who are resident citizens of the state, may introduce such slaves, as they may acquire by the marriage. The act then prescribes the mode of proceeding, upon the introduction of such slaves ; it requires returns to be made on oath to the different courts, describing the slaves ; restricts the selling, mortgaging, loaning, &c. of such slaves; and provides for the infliction of penalties, on such as fail to comply with its requirements; but these provisions are not to apply to slaves coming in and departing from the state with any traveller, or to the slaves of any citizen of the state, who are or may be removed out of the limits of the state for a temporary purpose; nor are they to 'be so construed as to prohibit any citizen of this state from purchasing or bringing into the same any slave or slaves for his or her own use, subject always to the other provisions of the act.' The act contains numerous other regulations upon this subject. It also provides that after February 1, 1833, if any free person of color settle in the state, and shall not, on notice of this act, depart therefrom within thirty days, he shall be liable, on conviction before any justice of the peace, to receive thirty-nine lash-s; if he shall not depart from the state, within twenty days after the VOL. IX.-NO. XVII.


infliction of this punishment, he shall be liable to be sold as a slave for the term of one year; and if he shall not depart within twenty days after the expiration of the year, he shall forfeit his freedom, and be sold to the highest bidder, and the proceeds of the sale

shall go, one half to the informer and the other half to the state.' If any person attempt to teach any free person of color or slave to read or write, he shall be subject to a fine of not less than $ 250, nor more than $ 500; free persons of color and slaves are prohibited, under very severe penalties, from writing passes for slaves; if any person circulate or publish any pamphlets, &c. tending to produce conspiracy or insurrection among the colored population, he shall suffer death; free persons of color are forbidden to trade or associate with slaves without a written permission from the master of the slaves. Nothing in the act is to be construed to "prevent free persons of color and slaves from attending places of public worship held by white persons ;' if any slave or free person of color preach to, exhort, or harangue any slaves, or free persons of color, unless in the presence of five respectable slave-holders,' he shall receive thirty-nine lashes for the first offence, and fifty lashes for every offence thereafter;' it is also required that the negroes so haranguing or preaching, shall be licensed thereto by some regular body of professing christians inmediately in the neighborhood, and to whose society or church such negro shall properly belong.'

Internal Improvement. The act of January 13, 1830, establishing a board of internal improvement, is repealed.

Indians. An act was passed extending the civil and criminal jurisdiction of the state over all the Indian territory within the limits of the state.

Sec. 2.—The commissioners' courts of revenue and roads are authorized to cause all such roads, bridges and ferries to be established within the territories where any Indians may live, as they may think the public good requires.

Sec. 3.—Indians are not to be compelled to perform any military duty, to work on roads, or serve on juries; neither shall this act be so construed as to authorize 'the assessment or collection of any tax whatever, from any Indian or person of mixed blood, descended of Indians, residing within the limits of the territory claimed by any of the Indian tribes, within the chartered limits of this state.'

Sec. 4.-All such persons 'may, within the county of their residence, have all the privileges of perpetuating testimony, recording wills and bills of sale, and conveyances, with the testimony of

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