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accumulated Adam Smith afford agriculture amount annual balance of trade bank notes banker bill of exchange Britain bullion bushels calculated capital cent circulating medium cloathing coin commerce commodities compelled consumer currency demand and supply depreciated currency discount effect employed employment encrease England equal Europe evil exchangeable value expence expenditure exportation favour fluctuations foreign fund furnish grains Hence hundred importance income individuals industry interest labour land legislative loan Malthus manufactures means measure of value ment merchant million monopoly national debt national wealth natural price necessary paid paper money payment persons Political Economy poor poor laws population pound pound sterling prime cost principle produce profit prohibitions promissory notes proportion purchase raw material reasonable regulated rent skill society sterling subsistence Suppose surplus taxation thousand dollars tion unproductive usual usury wages yellow fever
Seite 214 - The subjects of every state ought to contribute towards the support of the government, as nearly as possible, in proportion to their respective abilities; that is, in proportion to the revenue which they respectively enjoy under the protection of the state.
Seite 187 - But whether it tends either to increase the general industry of the society, or to give it the most advantageous direction, is not, perhaps, altogether so evident. The general industry of the society can never exceed what the capital of the society can employ. As the number of workmen that can be kept in employment by any particular person must bear a certain proportion to his capital, so the number of those that can be continually employed by all the members of a great society, must bear a certain...
Seite 215 - ... 4. Every tax ought to be so contrived as both to take out and to keep out of the pockets of the people as little as possible over and above what it brings into the public treasury of the state. A tax may either take out or keep out of the pockets of the people a great deal more than it brings into the public treasury, in the four following ways.
Seite 4 - It has made each particular nation regard the welfare of its neighbours as incompatible with its own ; hence the reciprocal desire of injuring and impoverishing each other ; and hence that spirit of commercial rivalry which has been the immediate or remote cause of the greater number of modern wars.
Seite 256 - In the forming and contracting of these habits. And hence results a rule of life of considerable importance, viz. that many things are to be done and abstained from, solely for the sake of habit.
Seite 190 - Whether the advantages which one country has over another be natural or acquired, is in this respect of no consequence. As long as the one country has those advantages, and the other wants them, it will always be more advantageous for the latter rather to buy of the former than to make.
Seite 187 - Every individual is continually exerting himself to find out the most advantageous employment for whatever capital he can command. It is his own advantage, indeed, and not that of the society, which he has in view. But the study of his own advantage naturally, or rather necessarily leads him to prefer that employment which is most advantageous to the society.
Seite 215 - Secondly, it may obstruct the industry of the people, and discourage them from applying to certain branches of business, which might give maintenance and employment to great multitudes. While it obliges the people to pay, it may thus diminish, or perhaps destroy, some of the funds which might enable them more easily to do so.
Seite 203 - Not to govern too much. Which, perhaps, would be of more use when applied to trade than in any other public concern. It were therefore to be wished that commerce was as free between all the nations of the world as it is between the several counties of England *; so would all, by mutual communication, obtain more enjoyments. Those counties do not ruin one another by trade; neither would the nations.