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220 Cong. 2d Sess.]

Report of the Committee on Manufactures. The sum apportioned to the State of South Carolina Union generally, resulting from the collection of the na: would be upwards of seven hundred and fifty-five thou- tional revenues, by duties of impost; nor is it true that sand dollars, very little short of those of the two States of South Carolina has suffered impoverishment under this New Hampshire and Vermont together. Is there a hu- system of taxation, in comparison with New Hampshire, man being who can imagine that the people of South Vermont, or New England generally. Of this the unanCarolina will pay, of fifteen millions levied by impost, an swerable demonstration is found in the same fact of redaamount approaching to that which will be paid by the tive representation in Congress, under the successivepeople of Vermont and of New Hampshire united? In enumerations of the people. In 1813, under the tbiri strict justice to the non-slaveholding States, all the reve- census, the representation of South Carolina in this House nues of the Union ought to be raised either by direct tax- consisted of nine members; that of Vermont was sis; that ation, or by a system, the operation of which would pro- of New Hampshire six. Under the last censuus, South, duce the same result. The slave representation is a per- Carolina retains for the next ten years the same number manent, uninterrupted privilege enjoyed by the owners of of nine members; New Hampshire has only five, Ver. the slaves. The equivalent for it ought, in justice, to mont only five: New Hampshire and Vermont have thos bear the same character. Duties of impost do so to a lost, each, one member on the floor of the Representative certain extent; but the substitution of them instead of di- hall, whilé South Carolina has retained her number unitrect taxation is, beyond all question, favorable to the paired. The relative increase of the population of Sout, slaveholding States.' Nine-tenths, at least, of all the re. Carolina has, therefore, for the last twenty years, been venue raised by impost duties are levied upon the articles greater than that of Vermont or New Hampshire; and let of cotton, wool, and woollens, silks, flax, and hemp, iron, it be remembered that, in South Carolina, this increase of spirits, and molasses, wines, coffee, tea, and sugar. Now, population is at the same time, in the most literal sense the consumption, by any part of the slave population, of an increase of wealth. There, population is property any one of these articles, when imported, is exceedingly and the increase of that part of the population which small

; instead of being in the proportion of three to five the property of the remainder, has been in larger propeta in comparison with that of the free white population, it tion. The slaves have multiplied more rapidly than their is certainly not in the proportion of one to ten. If we masters. Thus, altogether, for the last twenty years, the analyze the articles upon which the great mass of the re-population and the wealth of the people of South Carolina venue by impost is raised, we find it to be upon food and has increased more than those of Vermont or of New raiment; tea, coffee, sugar, wine, molasses, spirits, are of Hampshire, and this is the result of the system of imposty the first kind thus classified; wool, cotton, silk, fax, and which the political economists of the new school world leather, are of the second. Now, who does not know teach us to believe is grinding the South to dust for the that the food and raiment of the slave are almost entirely benefit of the North, and fattening the New Hampshire of domestic growth and production? They are fed upon farmer, and the shepherd of the Green mountains, upua the fruits, and clad in the apparel produced by their own the spoils of the South Carolina planter. labor on the plantations to which they belong. It is pro- In examining the part of the message specially refere bable that their owners consume more of the articles im- red by the House to the Committee on Manufactures ported from abroad than an equal number of citizens in namely, that which relates to the protection necessary the States where all are free; but if so, it is either because domestic manufactures, the subscribers have necessari they are more wealthy by the possession of slaves, or be been led not only to an examination of the principle lak cause they are not accustomed to habits of frugality so down, as the basis of the recommendationis

, relating parsimonious and self-denying. The passions, the vices, this particular interest, but to a general survey of all the and the virtues of men are all modified by their condi- foundations of the new system of Government for the tion in civil society. Among men who subsist only upon Union, the outline of which is presented for the first time the fruits of their own labor, industry and frugality are in this document. They have considered it as a whole constantly stimulated by the natural and perpetual impulse of which all the parts are adapted to each other, of bettering their own condition. Wherever one portion whole, which, if carried into execution, would change the of the community lives in perpetual servitude to another, nature of the Government of the United States, and, in where master and slave both subsist upon the labor

of the their belief, at no distant day, effect its dissolution 72 slave, industry and frugality not only lose much of their assumption of the principle, that, with the exception of natural influence upon human conduct, but are apt even articles of indispensable necessity in time of war

, all legge to lose the name and consideration of virtues. The slave lative protection must ultimately be withdrawn from der feels neither the spur of industry nor the curb of fiu- mestic manufactures, the subscribers believe to be itself gality; for the fruits of his industry are not his own, and contrary to the vital spirit of the constitution, and equire master's wants, supplied by another's toil, multiply with against a whole

, respectable, and most important clas el the means of gratification, and his natural tendencies will citizens; the denial to them of a right secured to them ar assume the hue and disrepute of servitude, and frugality assumed principle appears to us the more exceptionable to his eyes will lose her natural healthy bloom, and fade inasmuch as it is the identical principle assuned by the into the livid complexion of penurious avarice. Under nullifying faction of South Carolina, and had but too mante these influences, South Carolina, with a free white popu. fest a tendency to encourage them in the violent and up sibly, by the consumption of imported articles, contribute moment when the message was delivered, arming the subscribers have no hesitation in declaring their belief against that same right of the citizen to the protectior u that the difference of amount between them, if ascertain the laws. Had it stood by itself, the recommendation ed to a dollar, would be found too trifling and insignifi- gradually to withdraw from the manufactures the protec cant to warrant a whisper of complaint; and that it woula tion of existing laws, would have appeared inconsiderate: bear no sort of comparison to the difference, disadvanta- and, at the moment when made, most unseasonable

. But geons to South Carolina, which would appear by the levy coupled, as it was, with recommendations totally to abai of an equal amount by direct taxation. There is, then, neither injustice nor oppression upon

don all future purposes of internal national improvement, South Carolina, nor upon the southern portion of the property in the public lands, and to sacrifice with the

individual, but

Report of the Committee on Manufactures.

[22d Cong. 2d Sess. National Bank all the property of the nation in corporate of its Government, is to harmonize and not to divide, to companies for roads and canals, and the whole system co-operate and not to conflict. emanating from a speculative theory of political morality, The most remarkable characteristic of the controversy pronouncing the wealthy landholders of every country which now threatens the dissolution of the Union, is, that the best part of their population, the subscribers could it originated in the discontent of one great protected in. neither disguise to themselves, nor could they, consistent- terest, with the protection extended by the existing laws ly with the sense of their duties to their country, with-to another. The controversy is sectional in its nature. hold the exposure of their conviction that, taken all toge- It is the superabundantly, the excessively protected intether, it presents a decomposition of all the elements wbich rest of the South, which revolts at the feeble and scanty hold this Union together; an array of great interests against protection of the laws enjoyed by the North, the Centre, each other, instead of a combination, by mutual conces and the West. To inflame these discontents, and to arm sion and mutual support of great interests, in union with them with offensive weapons, sophisms, which reason each other. The planter of the South, the new settler of blushes to be called to confute, are wrought up into the West, the husbandman of the North and Centre, the axioms of political economy; fiction usurps the place of merchant of the Atlantic shore, the navigator of the ocean, fact, to invert the most authenticated story of our national and the artisan of the workshop and the loom, have each, independence. Construction nullifies the connexion bein his several sphere of action, a separate and distinct in- tween words and their meaning, to make the constitution terest, but a common right, a common stake, a common say what it denies, and deny what it says; and invention is pledge, in that great social compact, the constitution of beggared for tales of decay and desolation and poverty the United States.. All are equally entitled to its protec- and distress, in the South, in the face of an increasing retion, and to that of its laws. To bind, to interweave, to lative representation in this House, and a doubling amount rivet them in adhesion inseparable together, is the duty at once of population and property. The Southern planof the American patriot and statesman; to bring one of ter is told that duties of impost are paid, not by the conhose great interests in hostile collision with all or any one sumer of the dutied articles, but by the producer of of the others, is to loosen the bonds of the Union, and to cotton, rice, and tobacco. What is the purpose of this abcindle the fires of strife. A sound, uniform, and accre surdity? To stimulate his selfish and sordid passion of avalited currency; an inexhaustible and invaluable fund of rice, and his hatred of the Northern manufacturer. It is common property in the public lands; an organized and not true, but his anti-social passions believe it. He is told ffective application of the national energies and resources that this Union is a mere confederacy of States, of soveo great undertakings of internal improvement; and a firm, reign States, from which any one of them may break off ficient protection of commerce and navigation against at pleasure. This is grossly, palpably false; and to bolhe arm of foreign violence, and of manufactures and agri- ster it up; the most notorious historical facts are falsified. ulture against the indirect aggressions of foreign legisla. He is told that each of the States of this Union separately log and competition: these, the subscribers believe, are declared itself sovereign and independent; and as bare ze cements which can alone render this Union prosper- untruth is not of itself sufficient to bear out this imposus and lasting. To discompose and unsettle the currency, ture, the county of Mecklenburg is metamorphosed into

cast away the treasure of the public lands, to abandon the sovereign and independent State of North Carolina, I enterprise of internal improvement, and systematically to stamp the legend of the sterling standard upon the base > deny all protection to the domestic manufactures, is to metal of nullification. The tale is utterly groundless, but parate the great interests of the country, and to set them the abused planter believes it. In the constitution of the

opposition to each other. It is to untie the ligaments United States, the whole people of the Union, speaking f the Union.

in the first person, declare themselves parties to it; deThe subscribers, with the most respectful considera-clare themselves to ordain and establish it for the most on, but with the freedom which their sense of duty re-exalted purposes of human action, upon this side the aires, cannot but indulge the hope thal the author of the grave--even to secure to themselves and to their posterity essage will reconsider the principles upon which its re- the blessings of liberty. The planter is told that these immendations are founded, and review them upon a scale are idle, unmeaning, cabalistical words; that there is no more enlarged political philosophy than that of favorit- people of the United States. That the paper called the ma for one part of the population, to the disparagement constitution of the United States is a league of despotic

all the rest; or that of reducing the Government of a corporations, which can have no posterity to whom the ation, swelling from tens to hundreds of millions of blessings of liberty may be secured; which, having no overnable population, to a simple machine. To solve soul, can have no dread hereafter of the penalties of viovil society into its elements, is to send back man to the lated vows, and can never be excommunicated; which, te of nature; it is to degrade the citizen to a savage. having no conscience, can be bound by no ties of morality The subscribers believe that this great confederated to the fulfilment of its promises, contracts, and obligations; nion is an union of the people, an union of States, an free from all restrictions, luman or divine, independent nion of great national interests; an union of all classes, of all laws of the land or of heaven; sovereign as the onditions, and occupations of men; an union coextensive throne of Omnipotence, and competent to nullify not only ith our territorial dominions; an union for successive the laws of the whole Union, but the inalienable rights of ses, without limitation of time. They read in the pre- man, and the decrees of eternal justice. He is substanable to the constitution, that it was ordained and esta- tially told all this, and he believes it. ished by the people of the United States, among other He is then told that he is poor and miserable; that his eat and noble purposes, to secure the blessings of liberty plantation is going to ruin; that his slaves double their

themselves and their posterity. As sovereign States numbers in not less than twenty years; that they are not zve no posterity, they are incompetent to enter into any worth half so much as they were when cotton sold for chcompact. The people of the United States, in ordain-thirty cents a pound. That in South Carolina they cannot g the constitution, expressly bound to its observance their produce half so much as in Alabama, Mississippi, or Loui. sterity, as well as themselves. Their posterity, that is, siana. But that it is all owing to the accursed tariff; all e whole people of the United States, are the only power owing to the protection of Northern manufactures by the

carth competent to dissolve peaceably that compact. laws of the Union. He is told that the tariff takes money cannot otherwise be dissolved but by force. But to from his pocket, and puts it into that of the Northern make it perpetual, the first and transcendent duty of all nufacturer. He is told that the Northern manufacturer is o at any time are called to participate in the councils, a thief and a robber, and that it is upon him, the planter,

220 Cong. 2d Sess.]

Report of the Committee on Manufactures. that his robberies are committed. He is told that a cruel, impending with universal ruin, draining all the sources of tyrannical, oppressive majority in both Houses of Congress fertility from the fountains of internal national improveare the representatives of this highwayman of the North; ment, shaking to its foundation all commercial confidence

, that they pervert the very principles of popular represen- by the determined annihilation of the bank, and wresting tation to the purposes of oppression and robbery; that forever from the people of the United States, and from they dare not open their hearts to the sentiments of jus- their posterity, for unnumbered ages, the inestimable intice and humanity. He is told all this, and he believes it. heritance of the public lands, bequeathed to them by their

And behold the whole foundation of the superstructure fathers, or acquired at the expense of their own toil and of nullification. Falsified logic, falsified history, falsified treasure, as a property common to them all, and already constitutional law, falsified morality, falsified statistics, and yielding them yearly millions of income, which may be, falsified and slanderous imputations upon the majorities and ought to be, applied to the employment and compenof both Houses of Congress for a long series of years. All, sation of the laborious poor, and at the same time to the all is false and hollow. And for what is this enormous permanent and growing improvement of the condition of edifice of fraud and falsehood erected? To rob the free the people. working man of the North of the wages of his labor; to Such, in the opinion of the subscribers, is the protectake money from his pocket, and put it into that of the tion due to domestic manufactures; to the interest spe. Southern owner of machinery. It has been said that there cially committed, by the standing order of the House, to is no philosophic falsehood so absurd, but it has been the charge of the committee of which they are members

. maintained by some sublime philosopher. Surely there the protecti

necessary to domestic manufactures is the is no invention so senseless, no fiction so baseless or so protection of the existing laws. It is the protection es base, but it has been maintained by some learned, intelli- tended, though in other forms, to all the other great ingent, amiable and virtuous, but exasperated and bewil- terests of which the community is composed; the protecdered statesman. Nor was there ever in the annals of tion enjoyed by the planter of the South, by the woods mankind an example of a community fretted into madnessman of the West, by the merchant of the populous cities and goaded into rebellion, by a concerted and persever-by the mariner of the seas; protection from foreign hostiing clamor of grievances so totally destitute of foundation, lity, protection from foreign competition. and pretences so preposterously fictitious, as that which

But the subscribers must not be misunderstood. This has found its consummation in the nullifying ordinance of protection is in nowise incompatible with a reduction of the South Carolina convention.

the revenue, nor even with a reduction of the duties by In the name of the people of South Carolina, that con impost. The taxation of the country may be reduced to vention have declared that they will never more submit the wants of the Government, at whatever scale the stari to a protective tariff; and to place beyond all doubt what dard of these wants may be fixed by the wisdom of Centhey mean by a protective tariff, they have nullified, that gress, without at all impairing the principle of protection is, declared 'null and void, all the revenue laws of the The two principles have no necessary connexion with United States. They have, to the extent of their power, each other; and all this bitter controversy bas arisen from extinguished all the revenues of the United States derived the blending of them improperly together. That the from duties of impost. To nullify the protection of the taxation of the country ought now to be reduced, the sublaws imparted to their fellow-citizens, constituting more scribers do not believe, because at the present moment than half the population of the Union, they have abolished the treasury, so far from overflowing, is drained of more the revenues of the nation. They have in express terms than its last dollar. Because the tariff act will not, in declared that so long as the principles of protection shall their opinion,

bring any excess of revenue into the trea

: be recognised by the laws of Congress, no more taxes sury, at least for the two succeeding years; and if even shall be paid here,” that is to say, in South Carolina. the prospect of such an unexampled evil should approach

, South Carolina, then, by virtue of her sovereign power, the next Congress will be invested with ample powers to has deprived the people of all the rest of the Union of ward it off, and will certainly not be slow to exert them. the protection of existing laws; and she has declared that Nothing can be more fallacious than the fancy that we she never more will

pay her proportion of the taxes, not can control the action of our successors upon subjects even of the taxes imposed for revenue alone, until the over which their jurisdiction will be the same as ours principle of protection, that is, of protection by the im- with this exception, that theirs will be in full vigor, and are position of duties, shall be renounced, renounced forever. forever extinct. It is not for the dead to give laws to the in their theory, the South Carolina convention

make an living. Prospective legislation upon the most uncertain all-important distinction between duties imposed for reve- of contingencies, if not absolute usurpation, is akin to it in nue and duties imposed for protection; but, in their prac- the impotence of its claims. It is the broken column and tice, they involve them all in one common ruin.

mutilated inscription of Eternal Rome. If the time should Now, the subscribers cannot suppress the mortification come when even the prospect of a redundant treasury and alarm with which, at the very moment when the arm shall be imminent, taxation ought to be, and undoubtedly of one of the States of this Union was thus raised, pro- will be reduced; and in reducing its amount, the obliga. claiming with a voice of thunder her inflexible purpose tions of Congress will be to accomplish that object with to strike a vital blow at the right, the first constitutional out injuriously affecting any of the great interests of right of more than half the people of the Union to pro- the country. That this cannot be done by one uniform tection, even to the protection of existing laws, that, at ad valorem duty of any given per centage upon :!li this peculiar moment, the Chief Magistrate of the United ported articles, is certain; nor can it, without great injuse States should have addressed to the Legislative Councils tice, be effected by discarding all discrimination, except a message, recommending not only a gradual withdrawal that of articles charged with impost, and articles entirely tion for the future government of the Union, adapted to taxation, than the assessment of the same rates of duty that principle of withdrawn and nullified protection; a upon all dutied articles. Its first inequality is its beario systein revolutionary in its character, totally departing upon the rich and the poor; the same tax, which is unieke from all the paths of peace and prosperity trodden by by the wealtliy landholder, may crush to the earth his now calls us to deviate from them, to explore new wastes that produced by foreign legislation and foreign compelp Washington and all his successors, down even to him who day-laborer who tills liis ground. Its next but all is one'unbounded and interminable desert; a system |ınarket cheupened by a bounty upon its export, at the

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place whence it came; it comes in competition with a the Engineer Department, are not more definite and cerlike article, the production of your own soil or of your tain, and that embarrassments may not always be avoided own industry; tax it at the same rate of per centage upon by the observance of them; but, as neither my own reits value, as you do an article upon the production of flection, nor the lights derived from other sources, have which none of your own citizens have staked their for- furnished me with a better guide, I shall continue to apply tunes and subsistence, and you consume all your manu- my best exertions to their application and enforcement. factures with fire. It may be taken as a rule of universal In thus employing my best faculties to exercise the powers application, that with a uniform rate of ad valorem duties, with which I am invested, to avoid evils, and to effect the without discrimination, there can be no domestic manu- greatest attainable good for our common country, I feel facturing establishments. This is the protection which that I may trust to your cordial co-operation; and the exthey now enjoy by the constitution and existing laws of perience of the past leaves me no room to doubt the the United States. This protection the subscribers be- liberal indulgence and favorable consideration of those liere to be indispensably necessary to their existence, and for whom we act. its withdrawal by the General Government, whether im- The grounds upon which I have given my assent to apmediate or by gradual steps, leaves them only the melan-propriations for the construction of light-houses, beacons, choly alternative of sudden death, or slow and lingering buoys, public piers, and the removal of sand bars, sawextinction. In either event, it will be the sacrifice of all yers, and other temporary or partial impediments in our the free industry of the Union to that best part of the po- navigable rivers and harbors, and with which many of the pulation, the wealthy land and slaveholder of the South. provisions of this bill correspond, have been so fully statThis is the policy recommended by the message of the ed, that I trust a repetition of them is unnecessary. Had President of the United States, and against which the there been incorporated in the bill no provisions for works subscribers, as members of the Committee on Manufac- of a different description, depending on principles which tures, in submitting this their report to the House, deem extend the power of making appropriations to every obit their duty respectfully, but most earnestly, to remon-ject which the discretion of the Governinent may select,

and losing sight of the distinctions between national and J. Q. ADAMS. local character, which I had stated would be my future LEWIS CONDICT. guide on the subject, I should have cheerfully signed the bill.


December 6, 1832. From the President of the United States, returning the bill entitled “ An act for the improvement of certain

ENGINEER DEPARTMENT, | harbors, and the navigation of certain rivers," with his objections to the same. Read, and referred to the Com

Washington, October 27, 1832. mittee on Roads and Canals, December 6, 1832. To the President of the United States: To the House of Representatives:

Sur: In compliance with the requirements of your note, In addition to the general views I have heretofore ex. which I had the honor to receive from you yesterday, pressed to Congress on the subject of internal improve- directing my attention to a: examination of the approments, it is my duty to advert to it again in stating my priations contained in the bill “for the improvement of objections to the ball entitled “ An act for the improve- certain barbors, and the navigation of certain rivers," ment of certain harbors, and the navigation of certain which you retained at the close of the last session of Con. divers," which was not received a sufficient time before gress for consideration, and desiring me to report, at as the close of the last session to enable me to examine it early a day as practicable, what appropriations are for-before the adjournment.

“ 1st. Improvements of harbors on the scaboard;" or Having maturely considered that bill, within the time for, allowed to me by the constitution, and being convinced “ 20. The removal of partial and temporary obstructhat some of its provisions conflict with the rule adopted tions in a river already navigable, lying between a port of for my guide on this subject of legislation, I have been entry established by law on said river, and another such mopelled to withhold from it my signature; and it has port on the ocean;" or for, therefore failed to become a law.

“ 3d. The improvement of the harbors on such rivers, To facilitate as far as I can the intelligent action of Con- and within such places, or on the great lakes, which are gress upon the subjects embraced in this bill, 1 transmit themselves directly traversed by vessels engaged in our berewith a report from the Engineer Department, distin- foreign commerce; and directing me to set forth for what pushing, as far as the information in its possession would improvements appropriations are made that do not come enable it, between those appropriations which do, and within the above restriction, that are not navigable, that those which do not, conflict with the rules by which my are not on the direct line of communication, but embrace conduct in this respect has hitherto been governed. By watercourses, or places thereon between one port and that report it will be seen that there is a class of appro- another established by law, and which do not pertain to priations in the bill for the improvement of streams that the established harbor's or ports of entry, and that are to be are not navigable, that are not channels of commerce, made in rirers on which no such harbors or ports of entry and that do not pertain to the harbors or ports of entry exist; or at points on the lakes that are not situate at one designated by law, or have any ascertained connexion of, or between the different ports established by law to with the usual establishments for the security of com- aflord facilities to our foreign commerce;" I have the merce, external or internal.

honor to lay before you the following, as the most accuIt is obvious that such appropriations involve the sanc-rate classification, under the several heads above enumetion of a principle that concedes to the General Govern- rated, of the various appropriations provided for in this ment an unlimited power over the subject of internal im- bill, and which have for their object works of a character provements, and that I could not, therefore, approve a indicated by these heads respectively, that the informabill containing them, without receding from the positions tion possessed at this department will enable me to furtaken in my veto of the Maysville road bill, and after- nish. Wards in my annual message of December 7, 1830.

1st. Improvements of harbors on the seaboard. It is to be regretted that the rules by wbich the classi- For the harbor at the mouth of Bass river, Massafication of the improvements in this bill has been made by Ichusetts.

22d Cong. 2d Sess.]

Mineralogy and Geology of the United States.


For the harbor at the mouth of Connecticut river, Con- For Saugatuck river, Connecticut. necticut.

For Back creek, Maryland. For the harbor at the north end of Goat island, and the For Wabash river, Indiana. removal of the light-house to a proper site, Rhode Island. For opening a communication between Mahon's river, For the port of Little Egg harbor, New Jersey.

in Delaware, and the fast land. For breakwater at Sag harbor, New York.

With great respect, For breakwater near the entrance of the harbor of New

I have the honor to be, sir, Haven, Connecticut.

Your obedient servant, For the harbor of Baltimore, Maryland.

C. GRATIOT, For breakwater at Port Pontchartrain, Louisiana.

Brevet Brig. Gen. Chief Engineer, For works at Cedar point, Connecticut.*

For Fair Weather island and Black Rock harbor, Connecticut.

MINERALOGY AND GEOLOGY, UNITED STATES For Dog river bar, Alabama. For breakwater at Church's cove, Rhode Island.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, February 21, 1833. 2d. The removal of partial and temporary obstructions, Mr. RICHARD M. JOHNSON, from the Committee on

in a river already navigable, lying between a port of Military Affairs, to which was referred the resolution entry established by law on said river, and another such

to inquire into the expediency of authorizing the Preport on the ocean.

sident of the United States to employ a suitable per For buoying the channel and removing the bar in the son, in aid of the Topographical Bureau, to ascertain southwest passage of the Mississippi, below New Orleans, the mineralogy and geology of each of the several Louisiana.

States of the Union, with a view to the construction of 3d. Improvement of harbors on such rivers, and within a mineralogical and geological map of the whole tersuch places, or on the great lakes, which are them.

ritory of the United States, report: selves directly traversed by vessels in our foreign com- That they have examined the subject, and are of opi

nion that it is of great national importance, and is deseryFor the harbor of Portland, on Lake Erie, New York. ing of the approbation of Congress. The manner, also, For the harbor of Silver creek, on Lake Erie, New in which the proposition contained in the resolution is York.

sought to be carried into effect, appears entirely unes. For the harbor at the mouth of Big Sandy creek, onceptionable, by reason of its being very properly corLake Ontario, New York.

nected with the Topographical Bureau, as well as on acFor the harbor at the mouth of Salmon river, on Lake count of no additional appropriation being required to Ontario, New York.

carry it into effect. It is, in fact, only adding another For the piers at the entrance of the Chesapeake and object to the duties of that branch of the service. Delaware canal into the Delaware river, Delaware.

Whilst all the resources of industry in the United States For the harbor at the mouth of Oak Orchard creek, on have been deemed worthy the attention and protection of Lake Ontario, New York.

the Government, the development of our immense mine4th. Improvements which embrace watercourses, (or been fostered by that public encouragement which would

ral wealth has been left entirely to accident, and has not places thereon,) that are not navigable, that are not in bave been followed by so many advantages to our own

the direct line of communication between one port and citizens, or would have raised the scientific character of another, established by law, and which do not pertain our country abroad. to the established harbors, or ports of entry, and that are to be made in rivers on which no such harbors or their interests; and the science of geology, on account of

The European Governments have been more just to ports of entry exist, or at points on the lakes that are its pre-eminent practical utility, is, at this time, more porn not situate at one, or between the different ports esta-pular and more cherished, among the nations of Europe, blished by law, to afford facilities to our foreign com-than any other branch of knowledge.

This science, which can only be effectively studied by For the Kennebeck river, between Augusta bridge and arduous and laborious examinations of extensive and dis Ticonic falls, Maine.

tant localities, teaches that all the valuable metallic and For North river, Massachusetts. For Connecticut river, above the city of Hartford, Con- non-bituminous, tin, iron, copper, lead, gold, marble.

mineral deposites, such as coals, both bituminous and necticut.

freestones, and other mineral substances, proper for mi. For Thames river, between New London and Norwich, litary and civil constructions, occupy geological positions Connecticut.

in the crust of the earth, according to a natural system For the Hudson river, above Hudson, New Y For Delaware river, between Trenton and Bordentown. tent, the presence of any one of the numerous mineral

For the Raritan river, between New Brunswick and formations indicates to the scientific geologist the proba Red Root creek, New Jersey.

ble existence or non-existence of other formations contiFor Deep creek, Virginia. For Pasquotank river, North Carolina.

guous to it in the general system. Thus, a particular For river Raisin, Michigan Territory.

formation of sandstone may indicate, with unerring cer.

tainty, the existence of coal, or even salt, lying beneath For Kentucky river.

preFor harbor of Chicago, Illinois.

sent. For survey of St. Francis river, Missouri. For the Cocheco branch of the Piscataqua river.

The committee forbear to press further upon the House

further illustrations of this kind, and will only add that, For the Mispillion river, Delaware. For survey of Muskingum river, Ohio.

Topographical Bureau, have for their object the affording Petersburg, in Georgia. For survey of Savannah river, between Savannah and facilities connected with the transportation of productions

from the interior, it would seem that the national utility

of the services of that branch would be greatly increased * Suugatuck is classed under the fourth bead.

lif the Topographical Bureau were authorized to make


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