Practical Intelligence in Everyday Life

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This path-breaking book reviews psychological research on practical intelligence and describes its importance in everyday life. The authors reveal the importance of tacit knowledge--what we have learned from our own experience, through action. Although it has been seen as an indispensable element of expertise, intelligence researchers have found it difficult to quantify. Based on years of research, Dr. Sternberg and his colleagues have found that tacit knowledge can be quantified and can be taught. This volume thoroughly examines studies of practical intelligence in the United States and in many other parts of the world as well, and for varied occupations, such as management, military leadership, teaching, research, and sales.
 

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Inhalt

What Is Practical Intelligence?
1
Conceptions of Expertise
3
Theories of Expertise
4
The Acquisition of Expertise
6
Practical Intelligence as a Form of Developing Expertise
9
The Nature of Intelligence
11
Theories of Intelligence
15
Explicit Theories
18
Tacit Knowledge as a Measurement Construct
123
Developing Tacit Knowledge Inventories
125
Knowledge Identification
126
Item Selection
133
Instrument Construction
136
Summary of Tacit Knowledge Inventory Construction
137
Establishing the Validity of Tacit Knowledge Inventories
138
The Substantive Aspect
140

The Specificity of Practical Intelligence Its Nature and Development
32
Research on Practical Problem Solving Ability
34
Do Agerelated Patterns in Practical Intelligence Resemble Those in Conventional Intelligence?
38
What Develops Practical Intelligence?
46
Context of Practical Problem Solving
47
Content of Practical Problem Solving
50
Goals of Practical Problem Solving
51
Practical Problem Solving Strategies
52
Problem Interpretation Definition
54
Prototypic Forms of Developed Practical Intelligence
56
Intuition
57
Wisdom
59
Practical Intelligence in the Workplace
65
The Rational Manager
66
The Proactive Manager
68
Applying Practical Intelligence in the Workplace
70
Nonlinear Problem Solving
72
Reflection in Action
74
Approaches to Studying Practical Intelligence
77
CognitiveVerbal Measures of Social Intelligence
79
Behavioral Approaches to Measuring Social Intelligence
80
Nonverbal Approaches to Measuring Social Intelligence
82
Emotional Intelligence
87
Comprehensive Frameworks of Abilities
91
The Living Systems Framework
92
Subtheories
93
Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test
97
Measures of Practical Intelligence
103
Understanding Practical Intelligence The Role of Tacit Knowledge
104
Tacit Knowledge as Theoretical Concept
105
The Characteristic Features of Tacit Knowledge
107
Tacit Knowledge Is Practically Useful
109
What Tacit Knowledge Is Not
110
Tacit Knowledge Is Not a Proxy for General Intelligence
111
Describing Tacit Knowledge at Different Levels of Abstraction
112
A Cognitive Representation of Tacit Knowledge
113
Identifying and Measuring Tacit Knowledge
117
Measuring Tacit Knowledge
119
Simulations
120
Tacit Knowledge Approach
122
The Generalizability Aspect
141
The Consequential Aspect
142
Summary
143
The Role of Practical Intelligence in Civilian Settings
144
Academic Psychologists
145
Business Managers
147
Center for Creative Leadership Study
148
Salespeople
150
Air Force Organizational Levels
151
Managers Across Organizational Levels
153
College Students
155
Conclusions from the Tacit Knowledge Research Program
156
Tacit Knowledge and General Intelligence
157
Tacit Knowledge as a General Construct
159
Tacit Knowledge and Performance
160
Practical Intelligence An Example from the Military Workplace
162
Approaches to Understanding Leadership
163
Behavioral Approaches
164
Transformational Approaches
165
Leadership Versus Management
166
Tacit Knowledge in Military Leadership
168
Identifying the Tacit Knowledge of Military Leaders
169
Developing a Tacit Knowledge Inventory for Military Leaders
184
Validating the Tacit Knowledge Inventory for Military Leaders
191
I
200
II
207
Development
208
Enhancing Tacit Knowledge Acquisition
210
IV
212
V
216
Summary
217
Conclusions
219
VI
221
VII
225
VIII
255
IX
265
X
274
XI
279
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