Practical Intelligence in Everyday Life

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This path-breaking book reviews psychological research on practical intelligence and describes its importance in everyday life. The authors reveal the importance of tacit knowledge--what we have learned from our own experience, through action. Although it has been seen as an indispensable element of expertise, intelligence researchers have found it difficult to quantify. Based on years of research, Dr. Sternberg and his colleagues have found that tacit knowledge can be quantified and can be taught. This volume thoroughly examines studies of practical intelligence in the United States and in many other parts of the world as well, and for varied occupations, such as management, military leadership, teaching, research, and sales.
 

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Inhalt

What Is Practical Intelligence?
xi
Conceptions of Expertise
xiii
Theories of Expertise
xiv
The Acquisition of Expertise
2
Practical Intelligence as a Form of Developing Expertise
5
The Nature of Intelligence
7
Theories of Intelligence
11
Explicit Theories
14
Tacit Knowledge as a Measurement Construct
119
Developing Tacit Knowledge Inventories
121
Knowledge Identification
122
Item Selection
129
Instrument Construction
132
Summary of Tacit Knowledge Inventory Construction
133
Establishing the Validity of Tacit Knowledge Inventories
134
The Substantive Aspect
136

The Specificity of Practical Intelligence Its Nature and Development
28
Research on Practical Problem Solving Ability
30
Do Agerelated Patterns in Practical Intelligence Resemble Those in Conventional Intelligence?
34
What Develops Practical Intelligence?
42
Context of Practical Problem Solving
43
Content of Practical Problem Solving
46
Goals of Practical Problem Solving
47
Practical Problem Solving Strategies
48
Problem Interpretation Definition
50
Prototypic Forms of Developed Practical Intelligence
52
Intuition
53
Wisdom
55
Practical Intelligence in the Workplace
61
The Rational Manager
62
The Proactive Manager
64
Applying Practical Intelligence in the Workplace
66
Nonlinear Problem Solving
68
Reflection in Action
70
Approaches to Studying Practical Intelligence
73
CognitiveVerbal Measures of Social Intelligence
75
Behavioral Approaches to Measuring Social Intelligence
76
Nonverbal Approaches to Measuring Social Intelligence
78
Emotional Intelligence
83
Comprehensive Frameworks of Abilities
87
The Living Systems Framework
88
Subtheories
89
Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test
93
Measures of Practical Intelligence
99
Understanding Practical Intelligence The Role of Tacit Knowledge
100
Tacit Knowledge as Theoretical Concept
101
The Characteristic Features of Tacit Knowledge
103
Tacit Knowledge Is Practically Useful
105
What Tacit Knowledge Is Not
106
Tacit Knowledge Is Not a Proxy for General Intelligence
107
Describing Tacit Knowledge at Different Levels of Abstraction
108
A Cognitive Representation of Tacit Knowledge
109
Identifying and Measuring Tacit Knowledge
113
Measuring Tacit Knowledge
115
Simulations
116
Tacit Knowledge Approach
118
The Generalizability Aspect
137
The Consequential Aspect
138
Summary
139
The Role of Practical Intelligence in Civilian Settings
140
Academic Psychologists
141
Business Managers
143
Center for Creative Leadership Study
144
Salespeople
146
Air Force Organizational Levels
147
Managers Across Organizational Levels
149
College Students
151
Conclusions from the Tacit Knowledge Research Program
152
Tacit Knowledge and General Intelligence
153
Tacit Knowledge as a General Construct
155
Tacit Knowledge and Performance
156
Practical Intelligence An Example from the Military Workplace
158
Approaches to Understanding Leadership
159
Behavioral Approaches
160
Transformational Approaches
161
Leadership Versus Management
162
Tacit Knowledge in Military Leadership
164
Identifying the Tacit Knowledge of Military Leaders
165
Developing a Tacit Knowledge Inventory for Military Leaders
180
Validating the Tacit Knowledge Inventory for Military Leaders
187
I
196
II
203
Development
204
Enhancing Tacit Knowledge Acquisition
206
III
208
IV
212
Summary
213
Conclusions
215
V
217
VI
221
VII
251
IX
261
XI
270
XII
275
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