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The Second Constitution of the State of Ohio.

Sec. 4.

law. Majors general, brigadiers general, colonels, or commandants of regiments, battalions, or squadrons, shall, severally, appoint their staff, and captains shall appoint their non-commissioned officers and musicians.

The governor shall commission all officers of the line and staff, ranking as such; and shall have power to call forth the militia, to execute the laws of the state, to supress insurrection, and repel invasion.

SEC. 5. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for the protection and safe-keeping of the public arms.

ARTICLE X.

COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP ORGANIZATIONS.

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Sec. I. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for the election of such county and township officers as may be necessary.

SEC. 2. County officers shall be elected on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, by the electors of each county in such manner, and for such term, not exceeding three years, as may be provided by law. [As amended October 13, 1885; 82 v. 446.)

Sec. 3. No person shall be eligible to the office of sheriff, or county treasurer, for more than four years, in any period of six years.

Sec. 4. Township officers shall be elected by the electors of each township, at such time, in such manner, and for such term, not exceeding three years, as may be provided by law; but shall hold their offices until their successors are elected and qualified. [As amended October 13, 1885; 82 v. 449.]

Sec. 5. No money shall be drawn from any county or township treasury, except by authority of law.

SEC. 6. Justices of the peace, and county and township officers, may be removed, in such manner and for such cause, as shall be prescribed by law.

The commissioners of counties, the trustees of townships, and similar boards, shall have such power of local taxation, for police purposes, as may be prescribed by law.

Sec. 7.

ARTICLE XI.

APPORTIONMENT.

Sec. 1. The apportionment of this state for members of the General Assembly shall be made every ten years, after the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, in the following manner: The whole population of the state, as ascertained by the federal census, or in such other The Second Constitution of the State of Ohio.

mode as the General Assembly may direct, shall be divided by the number "one hundred," and the quotient shall be the ratio of representation in the house of representatives, for ten years next succeeding such apportionment.

Sec. 2. Every county having a population equal to one-half of said ratio, shall be entitled to one representative; every county, containing said ratio, and three-fourths over, shall be entitled to two representatives; every county containing three times said ratio, shall be entitled to three representatives; and so on, requiring after the first two, an entire ratio for each additional representative. Provided, however, that each county shall have one representative. (As amended November, 1903.)

Sec. 3. When any county shall have a fraction above the ratio, so large, that being multiplied by five, the result will be equal to one or more ratios, additional representatives shall be apportioned for such ratios, among the several sessions of the decennial period, in the following manner: If there be only one ratio, a representative shall be allotted to the fifth session of the decennial period; if there are two ratios, a spectively; if three, to the third, second, and first sessions, respectively; spectively; if htree, to the third, second, and first sessions, respectively; if four, to the fourth, third, second, and first sessions, respectively.

Sec. 4. Any county, forming with another county or counties, a representative district, during one decennial period, if it have acquired sufficient population at the next decennial period, shall be entitled to a separate representation, if there shall be left, in the district from which it shall have been separated, a population sufficient for a representative; but no such change shall be made, except at the regular decennial period for the apportionment of representatives.

Sec. 5. If, in fixing any subsequent ratio, a county, previously entitled to separate representation, shall have less than the number required by the new ratio for a representative, such county shall be attached to the county adjoining it, having the least number of inhabitants; and the representation of the district, so formed, shall be determined as herein provided.

Sec. 6. The ratio for a senator shall forever, hereafter, be ascertained by dividing the whole population of the state by the number thirty-five.

Sec. 7. The state is hereby divided into thirty-three senatorial districts, as follows: The county of Hamilton shall constitute the first senatorial district; the counties of Butler and Warren, the second; Montgomery and Preble, the third; Clermont and Brown, the fourth; Greene, Clinton, and Fayette, the fifth; Ross and Highland, the sixth ; Adams, Pike, Scioto, and Jackson, the seventh; Lawrence, Gallia, Meigs, The Second Constitution of the State of Ohio.

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and Vinton, the eighth; Athens, Hocking, and Fairfield, the ninth; Franklin and Pickaway, the tenth; Clark, Champaign, and Madison, the eleventh ; Miami, Darke, and Shelby, the twelfth ; Logan, Union, Marion, and Hardin, the thirteenth; Washington and Morgan, the fourteenth; Muskingum and Perry, the fifteenth; Delaware and Licking, the sixteenth; Knox and Morrow, the seventeenth; Coshocton and Tuscarawas, the eighteenth; Guernsey and Monroe, the nineteenth; Belmont and Harrison, the twentieth ; Carroll and Stark, the twenty-first; Jefferson and Columbiana, the twenty-second; Trumbull and Mahoning, the twenty-third; Ashtabula, Lake, and Geauga, the twenty-fourth; Cuyahoga, the twenty-fifth; Portage and Summit, the twenty-sixth ; Medina and Lorain, the twenty-seventh; Wayne and Holmes, the twentyeighth; Ashland and Richland, the twenty-ninth; Huron, Erie, Sandusky, and Ottawa, the thirtieth; Seneca, Crawford, and Wyandot, the thirty-first; Mercer, Auglaize, Allen, Van Wert, Paulding, Defiance, and Williams, the thirty-second; and Hancock, Wood, Lucas, Fulton, Henry, and Putnam, the thirty-third. For the first decennial period, after the adoption of this constitution, each of said districts shall be entitled to one senator, except the first district, which shall be entitled to three senators.

Sec. 8. The same rule shall be applied, in apportioning the fractions of senatorial districts, and in annexing districts, which may hereafter have less than three-fourths of a senatorial ratio, as are applied to representative districts.

Sec. 9. Any county forming part of a senatorial district, having acquired a population equal to a full senatorial ratio, shall be made a separate senatorial district, at any regular decennial apportionment, if a full senatorial ratio shall be left in the district from which it shall be taken.

SEC. 10. For the first ten years, after the year one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one, the apportionment of representatives shall be as provided in the schedule, and no change shall ever be made in the principles of representation, as herein established, or, in the senatorial districts, except as above provided. All territory, belonging to a county at the time of any apportionment, shall, as to the right of representation and suffrage, remain an integral part thereof, during the decennial period.

Sec. II. The governor, auditor, and secretary of state, or any two of them, shall, at least six months prior to the October election, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and, at each decennial period thereafter, ascertain and determine the ratio of representation, according to the decennial census, the number of representatives and senators each county or district shall be entitled to elect, and for what years, The Second Constitution of the State of Ohio.

within the next ensuing ten years, and the governor shall cause the same to be published, in such manner as shall be directed by law.

JUDICIAL APPORTIONMENT.

Sec. 12. For judicial purposes, the state shall be apportioned as follows:

The county of Hamilton, shall constitute the first district, which shall not be subdivided; and the judges therein, may hold separate courts or separate sittings of the same court, at the same time.

The counties of Butler, Preble, and Darke, shall constitute the first subdivision; Montgomery, Miami, and Champaign, the second; and Warren, Clinton, Greene, and Clark, the third subdivision, of the second district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Shelby, Auglaize, Allen, Hardin, Logan, Union, and Marion, shall constitute the first subdivision; Mercer, Van Wert, Putnam, Paulding, Defiance, Williams, Henry, and Fulton, the second; and Wood, Seneca, Hancock, Wyandot, and Crawford, the third subdivision, of the third district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Lucas, Ottawa, Sandusky, Erie, and Huron, shall constitute the first subdivision; Lorain, Medina, and Summit, the second; and the county of Cuyahoga, the third subdivision, of the fourth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Clermont, Brown, and Adams, shall constitute the first subdivision ; Highland, Ross, and Fayette, the second; and Pickaway, Franklin, and Madison, the third subdivision, of the fifth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Licking, Knox, and Delaware, shall constitute the first subdivision; Jackson, Vinton, Pike, Scioto, and Lawrence the Holmes, and Coshocton, the third subdivision, of the sixth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Fairfield, Perry, and Hocking, shall constitute the first subdivision; Jackosn, Vinton, iPke, Sciooto, and Lawrence, the second; and Gallia, Meigs, Athens, and Washington, the third subdivision, of the seventh district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Muskingum, and Morgan, shall constitute the first subdivision; Guernsey, Belmont, and Monroe, the second; and Jefferson, Harrison, and Tuscarawas, the third subdivision, of the eighth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The counties of Stark, Carroll, and Columbiana, shall constitute the first subdivision; Trumbull, Portage, and Mahoning, the second; and Geauga, Lake and Ashtabula, the third sibdivision, of the ninth district; and, together, shall form such district.

The Second Constitution of the State of Ohio.

Sec. 13. The General Assembly shall attach any new counties, that may hereafter be erected, to such districts, or subdivisions thereof, as shall be most convenient.

ARTICLE XII.

FINANCE AND TAXATION.

Sec. 1. The levying of taxes, by the poll, is grievous and oppressive; therefore, the General Assembly shall never levy a poll tax, for county or state purposes.

SEC. 2. Laws shall be passed, taxing by a uniform rule, all moneys, credits, investments in bonds, stock, joint stock companies, or otherwise; and also all real and personal property, according to its true value in money; but burying grounds, public school houses, houses used exclusively for public worship, institutions of purely public charity, public property used, exclusively for any public purpose, and personal property, to an amount not exceeding in value two hundred dollars, for each individual, may, by general laws, be exempted from taxation; but, all such laws shall be subject to alteration or repeal; and the value of all property, so exempted, shall, from time to time, be ascertained and published, as may be directed by law.

Sec. 3. The General Assembly shall provide, by law, for taxing the notes and bills discounted or purchased, moneys loaned, and all other property, effects, or dues, of every description, (without deduction), of all banks, now existing, or hereafter created, and of all bankers, so that all property employed in banking, shall always bear a burden of taxation, equal to that imposed on the property of individuals.

Sec. 4. The General Assembly shall provide for raising revenue, sufficient to defray the expenses of the state, for each year, and also a sufficient sum to pay the interest on the state debt.

Sec. 5. No tax shall be levied, except in pursuance of law; and every law imposing a tax, shall state, distinctly, the object of the same, to which only, it shall be applied.

Sec. 6. The state shall never contract any debt for purposes of internal improvement.

ARTICLE XIII.

CORPORATIONS.

Sec. I. The General Assembly shall pass no special act conferring corporate powers.

SEC. 2. Corporations may be formed under general laws; but all such laws may, from time to time, be altered or repealed.

Sec. 3. Dues from private corporations shall be secured by such means as may be prescribed by law, but in no case shall any stockholder

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