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circumstance of their cruelty and inhumanity, that figures can express, to make an impression on the minds of posterity as strong and durable as that on the copper. This resolution has been a long time forborne, but the late burning of defenceless towns in Connecticut, on the flimsy pretence that the people fired from behind their houses, when it is known to have been premeditated and ordered from England, will probably give the finishing provocation, and may occasion a vast demand for your metal. I thank you for your kind wishes respecting my health. I return them most cordially fourfold into your own bosom. Adieu. B. FRANK Li N.

To B. WAUGH AN, Esq. On his edition of some of Dr. Franklin's writings. DEAR SIR, Passy, Nov. 9, 1779. I have received several kind letters from you, which I have not regularly answered. They gave me however great pleasure, as they acquainted me with your welfare, and that of your family, and other friends; and I hope you will continue writing to me as often as you can do it conveniently. I thank you much for the great care and pains you have taken in regulating and correcting the edition of those papers. Your friendship for me appears in almost every page; and if the preservation of any of them should prove of use to the public, it is to you that the public will owe the obligation. In looking them over, I have noted some faults of impression that hurt the sense, and some other little matters, which you will find all in a sheet under the title of Errata. You can best judge whether it may be worth while to add any of them to the errata already printed, or whether it may not be as well to reserve the whole for correction in another edition, if such should ever be. Enclosed I send a more perfect copy of the chapter. “ - If I should ever recover the pieces that were in the hands of my son, and those I left among my papers in America, I think there may be enough to make three more such volumes, of which a great part would be more interesting. As to the time of publishing, of which you ask my opinion, I am not furnished with any reasons, or ideas of reasons, on which to form any opinion. Naturally I should suppose the bookseller to be from experience the best judge, and I should be for leaving it to him. I did not write the pamphlet you mention. I know nothing of it. I suppose it is the same concerning which Dr. Priestley formerly asked me the same question. That for which he took it, was intitled, A Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, Pleasure and Pain, with these lines in the title-page:

“Whatever is, is right. But purblind man
Sees but a part o' the chain, the nearest link:
His eye not carrying to that equal beam
That poises all above y?

London: printed MDCCXXV.”


I return the manuscripts you were so obliging as to send ine: I am concerned at your having no other copies: I hope these will get safe to your hands: I do not remember the Duke de Chartres shewing me the letter you mention. I have received Dr. Crawford's book, but not your abstract, - which I wait for as you desire.

* * *

* A parable against persecution.—See WRITINGs, Part III. MiscelLANIES, Sec. 1.

* See a full account of this pamphlet in MEMOIRs of the LIFE, Part 1. p. 33, 4to, ed.: p.68, 8vo, ed.

I send you also Mr. Dupont's Table Economique; which I think an excellent thing, as it contains in a clear method all the principles of that new sect, called here les Economists.

Poor Henley's dying in that manner is inconceivable to me. Is any reason given to account for it besides insanity ?

Remember me affectionately to all my good family, and believe me, with great esteem, my dear friend,

yours, &c.


To FRAN c1s Hopkinso N, Esq. D EAR FRIEND, Passy, June 4, 1779. . I received your kind letter of the 22d October last, which gave me great pleasure as it informed me of your welfare, and of your appointment to the honorable office of treasurer of loans. I think the congress judged rightly in their choice. An exactness in accounts, and scrupulous fidelity in matters of trust, are qualities for which your father was eminent, and which I was persuaded were inherited by his son when I took the liberty of naming him one of the executors of my will, a liberty which I hope you will excuse. I am sorry for the losses you have suffered by the Goths and Wandals, but hope it will be made up to you by the good Providence of God, and the good-will of your country, to whom your pen has occasionally been of service. I am glad the enemy have left something of my gimcrackery that is capable of affording you pleasure. You are therefore very welcome to the use of my electrical and pneumatic machines as long as you think proper. I enclose you a little piece of Oxford wit, which I lately received, hoping it may afford you amusement. Present my respects to your good mother and sisters, and believe me ever, my dear Friend, your's most affectionately, - B. FRANKLIN.

P. S. Permit me to recommend the new minister, Monsieur le Chevalier de la Luzerne to your civilities, as a gentleman of most amiable character here, and a hearty friend of the American cause. If you can in any respect be serviceable to him you will much oblige me.

Enclosed in the foregoing, (supposed to have been written by the late SiR WILLIAM Jones.)

* Collect read at Oxford on one of the fast days,

O King, from whom all tawdry ribbons, all silk gowns, and all lawn sleeves do proceed; give unto thy subjects that peace which the sword cannot give; and since thou hast unjustly brought us to the beginning of this war, put an end to the same by thy mighty prerogative; granting us in this war, at least the shadow of justice, and in wars to come a little more of the substance: through the merits of thy trusty and well beloved Sir Frederic North, our chancellor,


DEAR SIR, Passy, November 19, 1779. Having some time since heard of your illness, with great concern, it gave me infinite pleasure to learn this day from M. Chantel, (who did me the honor of a visit) that you were so far recovered as to be able to make little excursions on horseback; I pray God that your convalescence may be quick and perfect, and your health be again firmly established: science would lose too much in losing one so zealous and active in its cause, and so capable of accelerating its progress and augmenting its dominions. I find myself here immersed in affairs which absorb my attention, and prevent my pursuing those studies in which I always found the highest satisfaction; and I am now grown so old as hardly to hope for a return of that leisure and tranquillity so necessary for philosophical disquisitions. I have, however, not long since thrown a few thoughts on paper relative to the aurora borealis," which I would send you, but that I suppose you may have seen them in the Journal of l'Abbé Rozier. If not, I will make out a copy and send it to you; perhaps with some corrections. Every thing of your writing is always very welcome to me; if, therefore, you have lately published any new experiments or observations in physics, I shall be happy to see them, when you have an opportunity of sending them to me. With the highest esteem, respect, and affection, I am, &c. B. FRANKLIN.

* Giovanni Battiste BeccARIA, a religious of the School of Piety, was a native of Mondovi. His celebrity as a teacher of mathematics and philosophy, first at Palermo, and afterwards at Rome, caused him to be invited to Turin, where he filled the chair of experimental lecturer, and was employed in the tuition of some branches of the royal family. His correspondence was sought by men of letters in various countries; and he imparted to Dr. Franklin in particular, many important facts on philosophical subjects. Father Beccaria died at Turin, in an advanced age, in 1781. His “Dissertations on Electricity” have been published; but the most curious of his pieces is an “Essay on the Cause of Storms and Tempests.”

| WOL. I. !

To DR. Price, London.

DEAR SIR, Passy, February 6, 1780. I received but very lately your kind favor of October 14th, Dr. Ingenhausz, who brought it, having staid long in Holland. I sent that enclosed directly to Mr. L. It gave me great pleasure to understand that you continue well. Your writings, after all the abuse you and they have met with,

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* See Writings, Part Iv. “Philosophical Subjects.”

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