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pleased with what I saw of his conduct as an officer, when on supposed occasions we made preparation for engagement, the good order and readiness with which it was done, being far beyond my expectations, and I believe equal to any thing of the kind in the best ships of the king's fleet. He seems to have also a very good set of officers under him: I hope they will all in good time be promoted. He met and took two prizes, brigantines, one belonging to Cork, laden with staves, pitch, tar, turpentine, and claret; the other to Hull, with a cargo of flax-seed and brandy. The captains have made some propositions of ransom, which, perhaps, may be accepted, as there is yet no means of condemning them here, and they are scarce worth sending to America. The ship is yet in Quiberon Bay, with her prizes. I came hither seventymiles by land. I am made extremely welcome here, where America has many friends. As soon as I have recovered strength enough for the journey, which 1 hope will be in a very few days, I shall set out for Paris. My letter to the president will inform you of some other particulars. With great esteem, I have the honor to be, &c.

B. Feanklin.

P. S. December 10th. I have just learnt that eighty pieces of cannon, all brass, with carriages, braces, and every thing fit for immediate service, were embarked in a frigate from Havre, which is sailed: the rest were to go in another frigate of thirty-six guns. ,


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Gentlemen, Paris, Jan. 4, 1777—, .,

I arrived here about two weeks since, where I Mr. Deane. Mr. Lee has since joined us from Lon

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don. We have had an audience of the minister, Count de Vergennes, and were respectfully received. We left for his Consideration a sketch of the proposed treaty. We are to wait upon him to-morrow with 3 strong memorial, requesting the aids mentioned in our instructions. By his advice we had an interview with the Spanish ambassador, Count d'Aranda, who seems well disposed towards us, and will forward copies of our memorials to his court, which will act, he says, in perfect concert with this. Their fleets are said to be in fine order, manned and fit for sea. The cry of this nation is for us, but the court, it is thought, views an approaching war with reluctance. The press continues in England. As soon as we can receive a positive answer from these courts, we shall dispatch an express with it. I am, gentlemen, 8tc. B. Fbankliit.

To James Loveil, Esq.

Observations on commerceTreaty with FranceAmerican commissionersAnecdote of Lord Stormont, the British ambassador in ParisSpanish galeonsEnglish and French fleets at sea. •••. • (extracts.)

Sir, Passy, My 2«, 1779.

"I received your favor of May 15, and was glad to find that mine of December 21 had come to hand. Mr. Deane's brother writes that it was not signed, which was an accideutal omission. Mr. Deane himself is I hope with you long before this time, and I doubt not but every prejudice against him is removed. It was not alone upon the proceedings of congress J formed my opinion that such prejudices existed. I am glad to understand that opinion was groundless, and that he is like to come back with honor, in the commission to Holland, where matters are already so ripe for his operations, that he cannot fail (with his abilities) of being useful.


There has been some inaccuracy in sending us the last dispatches of the committee; two copies of the contract with Mr. Francy and the invoices came by the same vessel, Captain Niles. And though one of your letters mentions sending enclosed a resolution of congress relative to two articles of the treaty, that resolution is not come to hand. There are circumstances in the affairs of those articles, that make them in my opinion of no consequence if they stand, while the proposing to abrogate them has an unpleasing appearance, as it looks like a desire of having it in our power to make that commercial kind of war, which no honest state can begin, which no good friend or neighbor ever did or will begin, which has always been considered as an act of hostility that provoked as well as justified reprisals, and has generally produced such as have rendered the first project as unprofitable as it was unjust. Commerce among nations as well as between private persons should be fair and equitable, by equivalent exchanges and mutual supplies: the taking unfair advantage of a neighbor's necessities, though attended with a temporary success, always breeds ill blood: to lay duties on a commodity exported which our friends want, is a knavish attempt to get something for nothing. The statesman who first invented it, had the genius of a pickpocket, and would have been a pickpocket, if fortune had suitably placed him; the nations who have practised it have suffered for it fourfold, as pickpockets ought to suffer. Savoy, by a duty on exported wines, lost the supplying of Switzerland, which thenceforth raised its own wine, and (to wave other instances) Britain, by her duty on exported tea, has lost the trade of her colonies. But as we produce no commodity

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that is peculiar to our country, and which may not be obtained elsewhere, the discouraging ours by. duties on exportation, and thereby encouraging a rivalship from other nations in the ports we trade to, is absolute folly, which indeed is mixed more^ or less with some knavery. For my own part, if my protest were of any consequence, I should protest against our ever doing it, even by way of reprisal. It is a meanness with which I would not dirty the conscience or character of my country. The objections stated against the last of the two articles, had all been made, considered here, and were sent hence, 1 imagine, by one who is offended that they were not thought of weight sufficient to stop the. signing of the treaty, till the king should, in another council, reconsider those articles, and, after agreeing to. omit them, order new copies to be drawn, though all was then ready engrossed on parchment as before settled. I did not think the articles of much consequence, but I thought it of consequence that no delay should be given to the signing of the treaty after it was ready. But' if I had known those objections would have been sent to the committee, I should have sent the answers they received, which had been satisfactory to all the commissioners, when the treaty was settled, and until the mind, of one of them was altered by the opinion of two other, persons. It is now too late to send those answers. But I wish for the future, if such a case should again happen, that congress would acquaint their commissioners with, such partial objections, and hear their reasons, before they determine they have done wrong. In the mean time, this . is only to you in private. It will be of no use to communicate it, as the resolution of congress will probably be received and executed before this letter comes to hand.

Speaking of commissioners in the plural, puts me in mind of inquiring if it can be the intention of congress to keep three ambassadors at this court? we have indeed four, with the gentleman intended for Tuscany, who continues here, and is very angry that he was not consulted in making the treaty, which he could have mended in several particulars; and perhaps he is angry wiih some reason, if the instructions to him do, as he says they do, require us to consult him. We shall soon.have a fifth; for the envoy to Vienna not being received there, is, I hear, returning hither. The necessary expense of maintaining us all, is, I assure you, enormously great: I wish the utility,may equal it: I imagine every one of us spends nearly as much as Lord Stormont did. It is true he left behind him the character of a niggard; and when the advertisement appeared for the sale of his household goods, all Paris laughed at an article of it, perhaps very innocently expressed; "line grande quantite de iinge de table, Qui N'a Jamais Servi."—" Cela est tres vraisemblable," say they, "car il n'a jamais donni a manger."— But as to our number, whatever advantage there might be in the joint counsels of three for framing and adjusting the article? of the treaty, there can be none in managing the common business of a resident here. On the contrary, all the advantages in negociation that result from secresy of sentiment, and uniformity in expressing it, and in common business, from dispatch, are lost. In a court, too, where every word is watched and weighed, if a number of commissioners do not every one hold the same language, in giving their opinion on any public transaction, this lessens their weight; and where it may be prudent to put on or avoid certain appearances, of concern, for example, or indifference, satisfaction, or dislike, where the utmost sincerity and candor should be used, and would gain credit, if no semblance of art showed itself in the inadvertent discourse perhaps of only one of them, the hazard is equal to the number: and where

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