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To David HARTLEY, Esg.

Situation of affairs between Great Britain and America.

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Dear Sir,

Philadelphia, Oct. 3, 1775. I wish as ardently as you can do for peace, and should rejoice exceedingly in co-operating with you to that end. But every ship from Britain brings some intelligence of new measures that tend more and more to exasperate, and it seems to me that, until you have found by dear experience the reducing us 'by force impracticable, you will think of nothing fair and reasonable.

We have as yet resolved only on defensive measures. If you would recal your forces and stay at home, we should meditate nothing to injure you. A little time so given for cooling on both sides, would have excellent effects. But you will goad and provoke us. You despise us too muchand you are insensible of the Italian adage, that there is no little enemy. I am persuaded that the body of the British people are our friends, but they are changeable, and by your lying gazettes may soon be made our enemies.

Our respect for them will proportionably diminish, and I see clearly we are on the high road to mutual family hatred and detestation. A separation of course will be inevitable. 'Tis a million of pities so fair a plan as we have hitherto been engaged in for increasing strength and empire with public felicity, should * be destroyed by the mangling hands of a few blundering ** ministers. It will not be destroyed; God will protect and

prosper it, you will only exclude yourselves from any share in it. We hear that more ships and troops are coming out. We know that you may do us a great deal of mischief, and - are determined to bear it patiently as long as we can. But if you fatter yourselves with beating us into submission, you

know neither the people nor the country. The congress is still sitting, and will wait the result of their last petition. Yours, &c.



Urging him to sound the several courts of Europe, by means

of their ambassadors at the Hague, as to any assistance they may be disposed to afford America in her struggle for independence. Dear Sir,

Philadelphia, Dec. 9, 1775. I received your several favors of May 18, June 80, and July 8, by Messrs. Vaillant and Pochard; whom, if I could serve upon your recommendation, it would give me great pleasure. Their total want of English is at present an obstruction to their getting any employment among us; but I hope they will soon obtain some knowledge of it. This is a good country for artificers or farmers, but gentlemen of mere science in les belles lettres cannot so easily subsist here, there being little demand for their assistance among an industrious people, who, as yet, have not much leisure for studies of that kind..

I am much obliged by the kirid present you have made us of your edition of Vattel. It came to us in good season, when the circumstances of a rising state make it necessary frequently to consult the law of nations. Accordingly that copy which I kept (after depositing one in our own public library here, and sending the other to the college of Massachusetts Bay, as you directed) has been continually in the hands of the members of our congress, now sitting, who are much pleased with your notes and preface, and have entere tained a bigh and just esteem for their author. Your manuscript “ Idée sur le gouvernement et la royauté,” is also well

relished, and may, in time, have its effect. I thank you, likewise, for the other smaller pieces, which accompanied Vattet. « Le court exposé de ce qui s'est passé entre la cour : Br. et les colonies," &c. being a very concise and clear statement of facts, will be reprinted here for the use of our new friends in Canada. The translations of the proceedings of our congress are very acceptable. I send you herewith what of them has been further published here, together with a few newspapers, containing accounts of some of the successes Providence has favored us with. We are threatened from England with a Nery powerful force, to come next year against us. We are making all the provision in our power here to oppose that force, and we hope we shall be able to defend ourselves. But, as the events of war are always uncertain, possibly, after another campaign, we may find it necessary to ask aid of some foreign power. It gives us great pleasure to learn from you, that toute l'Europe nous souhaite le plus heureur succès pour le maintien de nos libertés. But we wish to know, whether any one of them, from principles of humanity, is disposed magnanimously to step in for the relief of an oppressed people, or whether, if, as it seems likely to happen, we should be obliged to break off all connexion with Britain, and declare ourselves an independent people, there is any state or power in Europe who would be willing to enter into an alliance with us for the benefit of our commerce, which amounted, before the war, to near seven millions sterling per annum, and must continually increase, as our people increase most rapidly. Confiding, my dear friend, in your good will to us and to our cause, and in your sagacity and abilities for business, the committee of cougress, appointed for the purpose of establishing and conducting a correspondence with our friends in Earope, of which committee I have the honor to be a member, have directed me

to request of you that, as you are situated at the Hague, where ambassadors from all the courts reside, you would make use of the opportunity that situation affords you, of discovering, if possible, the disposition of the several courts with respect to such assistance or alliance, if we should apply for the one, or propose the other. As it may possibly be necessary, in particular instances, that you should, for this purpose, confer directly with some great ministers, and show them this letter as your credential, we only recommend it to your discretion, that you proceed therein with such caution, as to keep the same from the knowledge of the English ambassador, and prevent any public appearance at present of your being employed in any such business, as thereby, we imagine, many inconveniences may be avoided, and your means of rendering us service increased. ... That you may be better able to answer some questions, which will probably be put to you, concering our present situation, we inform you—that the whole continent is very firmly united- the party for the measures of the British ministry being very small, and much dispersed--that we have had on foot, the last campaign, an army of near twentyfive thousand men, wherewith we have been able not only to block up the king's army in Boston, but to spare consider able detachments for the invasion of Canada, where we have met with great success, as the printed papers sent herewith will inform you, and have now reason to expect the whole province may be soon in our possession—that we purpose greatly to increase our force for the ensuing year; and thereby we hope, with the assistance of a well-disciplined militia, to be able to defend our coast, notwithstanding its great extent—that we have already a small squadron of armed vessels, to protect our coasting trade, who have had some success in taking several of the enemy's cruisers, and

some of their transport vessels and store-ships. This little naval force we are about to augment, and expect it may be more considerable in the next summer.'

We have hitherto applied to no foreign power. We are using the utmost industry in endeavoring to make saltpetre, and with daily increasing success. Our artificers are also everywhere busy in fabricating small arms, casting cannon, &c. yet both arms and ammunition are much wanted." Any merchants who would venture to send ships laden with those articles, might make great profit ; such is the demand in every colony, and such generous prices are and will be given; of which, and of the manner of conducting such a voyage,

the bearer, Mr. Storey, can more fully inform you :: and whoever brings in those articles is allowed to carry off the value in provisions to our West Indies, where they will probably fetch a very high price, the general exportation from North America being stopped. This you will see more particularly in a printed resolution of the congress. $t. We are in great want of good engineers, and wish you could engage and send us two able ones, in time for the next campaign, one acquainted with field service, sieges, &c. and the other with 'fortifying of sea-ports. They will, if well recommended, be made very welcome, and have honorable appointments, besides the expenses of their voyage hither, to which Mr. Storey can also advise them. As what we now request of you, besides taking up your time, may put you to some expense, we send you for the present, enclosed, a bil for one hundred pounds sterling to defray such expenses, and desire you to be assured that your services will be considered and honorably rewarded by the congress.

We desire, also, that you would take the trouble of receiving from Arthur Lee, esq. agent' for the congress in England, such letters as may be sent by him to your care,


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