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same time the easing Our domestic subjects in their taxes: for these causes, and other good considerations Us. thereunto moving, We here by make known, that, after having deliberated these affairs in Our council; present Our dcar brothers, and other great officers of the state, members of the same; We, of Our certain knowledge, full

power, and authority royal,' have made and issued this presentedict, viz. -

ve Whereas it is well known to all the world, that the first Germani settlements made in the island of Britain, were by colonies of people, subjects to Our renowned ducal ancestors, and drawn from their domi.! nions, under the conduct of Hengist, Horsa, Hella, Uffa, Cerdicus, Ida, and others: And that the said colonies have Aorished under the protection of Our august house, for ages past; have never been emancipated therefrom; and yet have hitherto yielded littlé profit to the sanie: And whereas We Ourself have in the last war fought for and defended the said colonies, against the power of France, and thereby enabled them to make conquests from the said power in America; for: which We have not yet received adequate compensation : And whereas it is just and expedient that a revenue should be raised from the said colonies in Britain, towards Our indemnification; and that those who are descendants of Our ancient subjects, and thence still owe Us due obedience, should contribute to the replenishing of our royal coffers; (as they must have done, had their ancestors remained in the territo ries now to Us appertaining:) We do therefore hereby ordain and command, That, from and after the date of these presents, there shall be levied, and paid to Our officers of the custoras, on all goods, wares, and merchandises, and on all grain and other produce of the earth, exported from the said island of Britain, and on all goods of whatever kind imported into the same; a duty of four and a half per cent. ad valorem, for the use of Us and Our successors. And that the said duty may more effectually be collected, We do hereby ordain, that all stips or vessels bound from Great Britain to any other part of the world, or from any other part of the world to Great Britain, shall in their respective voyages touch at Our port of Koningsberg, there to be unladen, searched, and charged with the said duties.

. And whereas there hath been from time to time discovered in the said island of Great Britain, by Our colonists there, many mines or beds of iron-stone; and sundry subjects of Our ancient dominion, skilful in converting the said stone into metal, have in time past trans

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ported themselves thither, carrying with them and communicating that art; and the inhabitants of the said island, presuming that they had a natural right to make the best use they could of the natural productions of their country, for their own benefit, have not only built furnaces for smelting the said stone into iron, but have erected plating-forges, slitting-mills, and stecl-furnaces, for the more convenient manufacturing of the same; thereby endangering a diminution of the said manufacture iu Our ancient dominion; We do therefore hereby farther ordain, That, from and after the date hereof, po mill, or other engine for slitting or rolling of iron, or any plating-forge to work with a tilt-bammer, or any furnace for making steel, shall be erected, or continued in the said island of Great Britain : And the Lord Lieutenant of every county in the said island is hereby commanded,,on information of any such erection within his county, to order, and by force to cause the same to be abated and destroyed'; as he shall an swer the neglect thereof to Us at his peril. But We are nevertheless gracigusly pleased 10 permit the inhabitants of the said island to transport their iron into Prussia, there to be manufactured, and to them returned;, they paying Our Prussian subjects for the workmanship, with all the costs of commission, freight and risk, coming and returning; any thing herein contained, to the contrary notwithstanding. Do We do not, however, think fit to extend this Our indulgence to the article of wool; but meaning to encourage not only the manufacturing of woollen cloth, but also the raising of wool, în Our ancient dominions; and to prevent both, as much as may be, in Our said island, We do hereby absolutely forbid the transportation of wool thence even to the mother-country, Prussia :- And that those islanders may be farther and more effectually restrained in making any advantage of their own wool, in the way of manufacture, We command that none shall be carried out of one county into another; nor shall any worsted, bay, or woollen-yarn, cloth, says, bays, kerseys, serges, frizes, druggets, cloth-serges, shalloons, or any other drapery stuffs, or woollen manufactures whatsoever, made up or mixed with wool in any of the said counties, be carried into any other county, or be water-borne even across the smallest river or creek; on pepalty of forfeiture of the same, together with the boats, carriages, horses, &c. that shall be employed in removing them. Nevertheless, Our loving subjects there are

hereby permitted (if they think" proper) to use all their wool as manure, for the improvement of their lands.

* And whereas the art and mystery of making hats hath arrived at great perfection in Prussia; and the making of hats by Our remoter subjects 'ought to be as much as possible restrained: And forasmuch as the islanders before mentioned, being in possession of wool, beaver, and other furs, have presumptuously conceived they had a right to make some advantage thereof, by manufacturing the same into hats, to the prejudice of Our domestic manufacture :-We do therefore hereby strictly command and ordain, that no hats or felts whatsoever, dyed or undyed, finished or unfinished, shall be loaden or put into or upon any vessel, cart, carriage or horse; to be transported or conveyed out of one county in the said island into another county, or to any other place whatsoever, by any person or persons whatsoever; un pain of forfeiting the same, with a penalty of five hundred pounds sterling for every' offence: Nor shall any hat-maker, in any of the said counties, employ more than two apprentices, on penalty of five pounds sterling per month: We intending hereby that such hat-makers, being so restrained, both in the production and sale of their commodity, may find no advantage in continuing their business. But, lést the said islanders should suffer inconvenièncy by the want of hats, We are farther graciously pleased to permit them to send their beaver furs to Prussia; and We also permit hats made thereot to be exported from Prussia to Britain; the people thus favored to pay all costs and charges of manufacturing interest, commission to Our merchants, insurance and freight going and returning; as in the case of iron. *** 6 And lastly, being willing farther to favor our-said colonies in Britain, We do hereby also ordain and command, that all the thieces, highway and street robbers, housebreakers, forgerers, murderers, S-d-tes, and villains of every denomination, who have forfeited their lives to the law in Prussia ; but whom We, in our great clemency, do not think fit here to hang; shall be emptied out of Our gaols into the said island of Great Britain, for the better peopling of that country.

• We fatter ourselves that these Our royal regulations and commands will be thought just and reasonable by Our much-favored colonists in England; the said regulations being copied from their statutes of 10 and 11 Will. III. C. 10:5 Geo, II. c. 29.-23Ģeo. II. c. 29. 4 Geo. I. c. 11. and from other equitable laws made by their partia

ments; or from instructions given by their princes, or from resolutions of both houses, entered into for the good government of their con co fanies in Irelund and America... " : 1

* And all persons in the said island are hereby Gautioned not to OPS pose


any wise the execution of this. Our edịct, or any part thereof, such opposition being high-treason; of which all who are suspected shall be transported in fetters from Britain to Prussia, there to be tried and executed according to the Prussian law.. 135

miss Such is Our pleasure. Given at Potsdain, this twenty-fifth day of the month of August, One

thousand seven hundred and seventy-three, and in the thirty-third year of Our reign.

By the King, in his council,

* RECHTMÆSSIG, Sec.' Some take this edict to be' merely one of the king's jeux d'esprit: others suppose it serious, and that he means a quarrel with England: but all here think the assertion it concludes with that these regula. tions are copied from acts of the English parliament respecting their colonies,' a very injurious one; it being impossible to believe, that a people distinguished for their love of liberty; a nation so wise, so liberal in its sentiments, so just and equitable towards its neighbors; should, fron mean and injudicious views of petty immediate profits treat its own children in a manner so arbitrary and tyrannical. , f'f?


The right of the British parliament to make laws for Ame. rica denied Lord Mansfield's opinion of the pretended

Prussian edict-The reading of it at Lord le Despencer's by Paul Whitehead.

Dear Son,

London, Oct. 6, 1773. I wrote to you on the 1st of last inonth, since which I have received yours of July 29, from New York.

I know not what letters of mine governor Hutchinson could mean, as advising the people to insist on their independency: But whatever they were, I suppose he has sent copies of them

hither, having heard some whisperings about them. I shall, however, be able at any time to justify every thing I have Written; the purport being uniformly this, that they should carefully avoid all tumults and every violent measure, and content themselves with verbally keeping up their claims, and holding forth their rights whenever occasion requires; secure, that from the growing importance of America, those claims will ere long be attended to and acknowledged. From a long and' thorough consideration of the subject, I am indeed of opinion that the parliament has no right to make any law whatever binding on the colonies. That the king, and not the king, lords and commons collectively, is their sovereign; and that the king, with their respective parliaments, is their only legislator. I know your sentiments differ from mine on these subjects. You are a thorough government man, which I do not wonder at, nor do I aim at converting you. I only wish you to act uprightly and steadily, avoiding that duplicity which in Hutchinson adds contempt to indignation. If you can proinote the prosperity of your people, and leave them happier than you found them, whatever your political principlies are, your memory will be honored. - I have written two pieces here lately for the public advertiser, on American affairs, designed to expose the conduct of this country towards the colonies, in a short, comprehensive, and striking view, and stated therefore in out-of-the-way forms, as most likely to take the general attention. The first was called rules by which a great empire may be reduced to a small one;' the second, an edict of the king of Prussia, I sent you one of the first, but could not get enough of the second to spare you one, though my clerk went the next morning to the printer's and wherever they were sold They

See WRITINGS, Part IR, IRR 997934

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