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a war would give pleasure; who speak of it as a thing to be wished; partly as a chastisement to the colonies, and partly to make them feel the want of protection from this country, and pray for it. For it is imagined that we could not possibly defend ourselves against the Indians without such assistance, so little is the state of America understood here.

My Lord H. mentioned the Farmer's letters to me, said he had read them, that they were well written, and he believed he could guess who was the author, looking in my face at the same time as if he thought it was me. He censured the doctrines as extremely wild, &c. I have read them as far as No. 8. I know not if any more have been published, I should have thought they had been written by Mr. Delancy, not having heard any mention of the others you point out as joint authors. I am not yet master of the idea these and the New England writers have of the relation between Britain and her colonies. I know not what the Boston people mean by the “subordination” they acknowledge in their assembly to parliament, while they deny its power to make laws for them, nor what bounds the Farmer sets to the power he acknowledges in parliament to “regulate the trade of the colonies,” it being difficult to draw lines between duties for regulation and those for revenue, and if the parliament is to be the judge, it seems to me that establishing such principles of distinction will amount to little. The more I have thought and read on the subject the more I find myself confirmed in opinion, that no middle doctrine can be well maintained, I mean not clearly with intelligible arguments. Something might be made of either of the extremes; that parliament has a power to make all laws for us, or that, it has a power to make no laws for us; and I think the arguments for the latter more numerous and weighty than those for the former. Supposing that doctrine established, the colonies would then be so many separate states, only subject to the same king; as England and Scotland were before the Union. And then the question would be, whether a union like that with Scotland would or would not be advantageous to the whole. I should have no doubt of the affirmative, being fully persuaded that it would be best for the whole, and that though particular parts might find particular disadvantages in it, they would find greater advantages in the security arising to every part from the increased strength of the whole. But such union is not likely to take place while the nature of our present relation is so little understood on both sides the water, and sentiments concerning it remain so widely different. As to the Farmers' combating, as you say they intend to do, my opinion that the parliament might lay duties though not impose internal taxes, I shall not give myself the trouble to defend it. Only to you, I may say, that not only the parliament of Britain, but every state in Europe claims and exercises a right of laying duties on the exportation of its own commodities to foreign countries. A duty is paid here on coals exported to Holland, and yet England has no right to lay an internal tax on Holland. All goods brought out of France to England, or any other country, are charged with a small duty in France, which the consumers pay, and yet France has no right to tax other countries. And in my opinion the grievance is not that Britain puts duties upon her own manufactures exported to us, but that she forbids us to buy the like manufactures from any other country. This she does however in virtue of her allowed right to regulate the commerce of the whole empire, allowed I mean by the Farmer, though I think whoever would dispute that right, might stand upon firmer ground and make much more of the argument: but my reasons are too many and too long for a letter. * *

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... Mr. Grenville complained in the house that the governor of New Jersey, New Hampshire, East and West Florida, had none of them obeyed the orders sent them to give au account of the manufactures carried on in their respective provinces. Upon hearing this I went after the house was up, and got a sight of the reports made by the other governors. They are all much in the same strain, that there are no manufactures of any consequence; in Massachusetts a little coarse weallen only made in families for their own wear: glass and linen have been tried and failed. Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New York, much the same. Pennsylvania has tried a linen manufactory, but it is dropped, it being imported cheaper; there is a glass-house in Lancaster county, but it makes only a little coarse ware for the country neighbors. Maryland is clothed all, with English manufactures. Virginia the same, except that in their families they spin a little cotton of their own growing. South Carolina and Georgia none. All speak of the dearness of labor that makes manufactures impracticable. Only the governor of North Carolina parades with a large manufacture in his country that may be useful to Britain of pine boards; they having fifty saw-mills on one river. These accounts are very satisfactory here, and induce the parliament to despise and take no notice of the Boston resolutions. I wish you would send your account before the meeting of next parliament. You have only to report a glass-house for coarse window glass and bottles, and some domestic manufactures of linen and woollen for family use that do not half clothe the inhabitants, all the finer goods coming from • England and the like. I believe you will be puzzled to find any other, though I see great puffs in the papers. . . . . . * The parliament is up, and the nation in a ferment with the new elections. Great complaints are made that the natural interest of country gentlemen in their neighboring boroughs, is overborne by the monied interest of the new people who have got sudden fortunes in the Indies, or as contractors, &c.: 4000l. is now the market price for a borough. In short, this whole venal nation is now at market, will be sold für about two millions; and might be bought out of the hands of the present bidders (if he would offer half a million more) by the very devil himself. a * * ... I shall wait on Lord H. again next Wednesday on behalf of the sufferers by Indian and French depredations, to have an allowance of lands out of any new grant made by the Indians so long solicited (and perhaps still to be solicited) in vain: I am your affectionate father, B. FRAN ELIN. P.S.. I dined yesterday with General Monckton, Major Gates, Colonel Lee, and other officers who have served in and are friends of America. Monckton inquired kindly after your welfare.

To the Committee of CoRREspon DeNcE, PENNSYLVANIA.

Affair of the boundary line with the Indians—General Gage —Governor Penn.

GENTLEMEN, London, March 18, 1768.

On receipt of your letter of January 20, Mr. Jackson and myself waited on Lord Hillsborough, the new secretary of state for American affairs, and communicated to him the contents, pressing the necessity of enforcing the orders already sent to Sir William Johnson for immediately settling the affair of the boundary line with the Indians. His Lordship was pleased to assure us, that he would cause duplicates of the orders to be forwarded by this packet and urge the completion of them. . ... at * * : * * * * 3. We communicated also the copy of General Gage's letter, and the messages that had passed between the governor and the house thereupon. His Lordship acquainted us that a letter from Governor Penn had been shown him by the proprietor importing that a horrid murder had lately been committed on the Indians, upon which the governor had issued a proclamation for, apprehending the murderer; and that a bill was under, his and the council's consideration to prevent future settlements on Indian lands. But his lordship remarked that these messages had not been communicated to him by the proprietor. * * * ~ * * Government here begins to grow tired of the enormous expense of Indian affairs, and of maintaining posts in the Indian country, and it is now talked of as a proper measure to abandon these posts, demolishing all but such as the colonies may think fit to keep up at their own expense; and also to return the management of their own Indian affairs into the hands of the respective provinces as formerly. What the result will be is uncertain, counsels here being so continually fluctuating. But I have urged often that after taking those affairs out of our hands, it seems highly incumbent on the ministry not to neglect them, but to see that they are well managed, and the Indians kept in peace. I think, however, that we should not too much depend on their doing this, but look to the matter a little ourselves, taking ev

opportunity of conciliating the affections of the Indians

seeing that they always have justice done them, and some! times kindness. For I can assure you that here are not wanting people who, though not now in the ministry, no one knows how soon. they may be, and if they were ministers would take no step to prevent an Indian war in the colonies,

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