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colonies would then be so many separate states, only subject to the same king; as England and Scotland were before the Union. And then the question would be, whether a union like that with Scotland would or would not be advantageous to the whole. I should have no doubt of the affirmative, being fully persuaded that it would be best for the whole, and that though particular parts might find particular disadvantages in it, they would find greater advantages in the security arising to every part from the increased strength of the whole. · But such union is not likely to take place while the nature of our present relation is so little understood on both sides the water, and sentiments concerning it remain so stidely different. As to the Farmers' combating, as you say they intend to do, my opinion that the parliament might lay duties though not impose internal taxes, I shall not give myself the trouble to defend it. Only to you, I may say, that not only the parliament of Britain, but every state in Europe claims and exercises a right of laying duties on the exportation of its own commodities to foreigu countries. A duty is paid here on coals exported to Holland, and yet England has no right to lay an internal tax on Holland. All goods brought out of France to England, or any other country, are charged with a small duty in France, which the consumers pay, and yet France has no right to tax other countries And in my opinion the grievance is not that Britain puts duties upon her own manufactures exported to us, but that she forbids us to buy the like manufactures from any other country. This she does however in virtue of her allowed right to regulate the commerce of the whole empire, allowed I mean by the Farmer, though I think whoever would disa pute that right, might stand upon firmer ground and make much more of the argument: but my reasons are too many aud too long for a letter.

Mr. Grenville complained in the house that the governor of New Jersey, New Hampshire, East and West Florida, had none of them obeyed the orders sent them to give an account of the manufactures carried on in their respective provinces. Upon hearing this I went after the house was up, and got a sight of the reports made by the other governors. They are all much in the same strain, that there are no manufactures of any consequence; in Massachusetts a little coarse woollen only made in families for their own wear : glass and linen have been tried and failed. Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New York, much the same. Pennsylvania has tried a linen manufactory, but it is dropped, it being imported cheaper; there is a glass-house in Lancaster county, but it makes only a little coarse ware for the couutry. neighbors. Maryland is clothed all with English manufactures. Virginia the same, except that in their families they spin a little cotton of their own, growing. South Carolina and Georgia none. All speak of the dearness of labor that makes manufactures impracticable. Only the governor of North Carolina parades with a large manufacture in his country that may be useful to Britain of pine boards; they having fifty saw-mills on one river. These accounts are very satisfactory here, and induce the parliament to despise and take no notice of the Boston resolutions. I wish you would send your account before the meetivg of next parliament. You have only to report a glass-house for coarse window glass and bottles, and some domestic manufactures of linen and woollen for family use that do not half clothe the inhabitants, all the finer goods coming from England and the like. I believe you will be puzzled to find any other, though I see great puffs in the papers.

The parliament is up, and the nation in a ferment with the new elections. Great complaints are made that the natural

interest of country gentlemen in their neighboring boroughs, is overborne by the monied interest of the new people who have got sudden fortunes in the Indies, or as contractors, &c. : 40001. is now the market price for a borough. In short, this whole venal nation is now at market, will be sold for about two millions; and might be bought out of the hands of the present bidders (if he would offer half a million more) by the very devil hiinself.

I shall wait on Lord H. again next Wednesday on behalf of the sufferers by Indian and French depredations, to have an allowance of lands out of any new grant made by the Indians so long solicited (and perhaps still to be solicited) in vain: I am your affectionate father, B. FRANKLIN.

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P.S. I dined yesterday with General Monckton, Major Gates, Colonel Lee, and other officers who have served in and are friends of America. Monckton inquired kindly after

your welfare,

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Affair of the boundary line with the Indians-General Gage

Governor Penn,


London, March 13, 1768, On receipt of your letter of January 20, Mr. Jackson and myself waited on Lord Hillsborough, the new secretary of state for American affairs, and communicated to him the contents, pressing the necessity of enforcing the orders already sent to Sir William Johnson for immediately settling the affair of the boundary line with the Indians. His Lordship was pleased to assure us, that he would cause duplicates

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of the orders to be forwarded by this packet and urge the completion of them. 3. We communicated also the copy of General Gage's letter, and the messages that had passed between the governor and the house thereupon. His Lordship acquainted us that a letter from Governor Penn had been shown him by the proprietor importing that a horrid murder had lately been com. mitted on the Indians, upon which the governor bad issued a proclamation for apprehending the murderer; and that a bill was under his and the council's consideration to prevent future settlements on Indian lands. But his lordship remarked that these messages had not been communicated to him by the proprietor.

Government bere begins to grow tired of the enornious expense of Indian affairs, and of maintaining posts in the Indian country, and it is now talked of as a proper measure to abandon these posts, demolishing all but such as the colonies may think fit to keep up at their own expense; and also to return the management of their own Indian affairs into the hands of the respective provinces as formerly. Wbat the result will be is uncertain, counsels here being so continually fluctuating. But I have 'urged often that after taking those affairs out of our hands, it seems highly incumbent 'on the ministry not to neglect them, but to see that they are well managed, and the Indians kept in peace. I think, howa ever, that we should not too much depend on their doing this, but look to the matter a little ourselves, taking every opportunity of conciliating the affections of the Indians 'by seeing that they always have justice done them, and some times kindness. For I can assure you that here are not wanting people who, though not now in the ministry, no one knows how soon, they may be, and if they were ministers would take no step to prevent an Indian war in the colonies,

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being of opinion, which they express openly, that it would be a very good thing, in the first place to chastise the colopists for their undutifulness, and then to make them sensible of the necessity of protection by the troops of this countrybus * Mr. "Jackson being now taken up with his election busia ness, will hardly have time to write by this opportunity. But he joins with me in respects to you and the assembly, and assurances of our most faithful services. I an, gentlemen, your most obedient, and most humble servant, ? from 118 cm

....'.'. B. FRANKLIN. d - A POSE" To Joseph GALLOWAY, Esq. Lord HillsboroughThe old parliament gone-First ing

stance of bribery in Queen Elizabeth's time---Monstrously risen since, DEAR SIR,

London, March 13, 1768.

. bin I wrote to you very fully per Falconer on February 17, and have since received yours of January 21, together with one from the committee, and the messages, which as you will see by my answer to the committee 1 communicated to Lord Hillsborough. His lordship read them deliberately, and took notice that the message of the assembly seemed to insinuate that the governor had been tardy in bringing the former murderers to justice, which gave me an opportunity of exr plaining that matter to him;, whereby he might also under; stand why, the proprietor had not shown him the messages when he communicated the governor's letter concerning the Indian uneasinesses, the law under his consideration for removing them, the late murder, and his proclamation.. I shall wait on his lordship again next Wednesday on our a

show him poreover your letter with some other papers, The old parliament is gone, and its enemies now find themselves at liberty to abuse it, I enclose published the very hour of its prorogation. All the mem


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