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by the description of the winter, the country they visited should be southward of New England, supposing no change sinoe that time of the climate. But if it be true, as Krantz, I think, and some other historians tell us, that old Greenland,
Although we may not be able exactly to ascertain the situation of Vinelard, we have sufficient room to conjecture that this colony could not be får from the coasts of Labrador, or those of Newfoundland, which are not far from it, nor is there any circumstance in the relations of the ancient chronicles, but what may be accounted for on such a supposition.
“The first difficulty that must be obviated, is the short space of time that appears to have been taken up in passing to this country from Greenland. To this it may be said, that the Norwegians pro. bably sailed from the western, as well as from the eastern coast of that country, since they had settlements on both sides of it. 3, It is certain that Davis's Strait, which separates Greenland from the American continent, is very narrow in several places, and it apa pears from Ellis's Voyage to Hudson's Bay,' that his passage from the southern point of Greenland to the entrance to Hudson's Bay, was but seven or eight days' sail. The distance from the same point to the nearest coast of Labrador is much less. This could therefore appear no such frightful distance to adventurers who had newly discovered Greenland, which is separated from Iceland by a distance nearly equal. This reasoning is still further enforced, when we Teflect, that Iceland itself is nearly double that distance from the nearest parts of Norway.
“ Mr. Egede, in his account of Greenland, says, that Davis's Strait is only a deep bay, which runs on, narrowing towards the north, till the opposite or American continent can easily be discerned, and that its extremity ends in a river, over which, wandering savages, inured to cold, might easily pass if they had no canoes.
« The result of this seems to be, that there can be no doubt but that the Norwegian Greenlanders discovered the American continent, and that the place where they settled was either the country of Labrador, or Newfoundland, and that their colony subsisted there a long time."-- Mallet's Northern Antiquities, Vol. I.
once inhabited and populous, is now rendered uninhabited by ice, it should seem that the almost perpetual northern winter had gained ground to the southward ; and if so, perhaps more porthern countries might anciently have had vines, than can bear them in these days.
To SAMUEL DANFORTH, Esg. "
London, July 25, 1773."> It gave me great pleasure to receive so cheerful an epistle from a friend of balf a century's standing, and to see him commencing life a-new in so valuable a son. I hope the young gentleman's patent will be as beneficial to him as his invention must be to the public.
I see by the papers, that you continue to afford that public your services, which makes me almost ashamed of my resolutions for retirement. But this exile, though an honorable one, is become grievous to me, in so long a separation from my family, friends and country, all which you happily enjoy ; and long may you continue to enjoy them. I hope for the great pleasure of once more seeing and conversing with you ; and though living on in one's children, as we both may do, is a good thing, I cannot but fancy it might be better to con tinue living ourselves at the same time. I rejoice therefore, in your kind intentions of including me in the benefits of that inestimable stone, which curing all diseases (even old age itself ), will enable us to see the future glorious state of our America, enjoying in full security her own liberties, and offering in her bosom a participation of them to all the oppressed of other nations. I anticipate the jolly conversation
• Dr. Franklin was at that time agent for several of the American colonies in Great Britain.
we and twenty more of our friends may have a bundred years hence on this subject, over that well replenished bowl at Cambridge commencement. I am, dear sir, for an age to come, and for ever, with sincere esteem and respect, your most obedient humble servant,
To His MOST SERENE HIGHNESS Don GABRIEL
Philadelphia, Dec. 12, 1775, ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE,
I have just received through the hands of the ambassador of Spain, the much esteemed present your most serene highness hath so kindly sent me, of your excellent version of Sallust. I am extremely sensible of the honor done '
me, and beg you would accept my thankful acknowledgments. I wish I could send hence any American literary production worthy of your perusal; but as yet the muses have scarcely visited these remote regions. Perhaps, however, the proceedings of our American congress, just published, may be a subject of some curiosity at your court. I therefore take the liberty of sending your highness a copy, with some other papers which contain' accounts of the successes wherewith Providence has lately favored us. Therein your wise politicians may contemplate the first efforts of a rising state, which seems likely soon to act a part of some importance on the stage of human affairs, and furnish materials for a future Sallust. I am
very old and can scarce hope to see the event of this great contest : but looking forward, I think I see a powerful dominion growing up here, whose interest it will be to form a close and firm alliance with Spain, (their territories bordering) and who being united, will be able, not only ta
preserve their own people in peace, but to repel the force of all the other powers in Europe. It seems, therefore, prudent on both sides to cultivate a good understanding, that nay hereafter be so useful to both; towards which a fair foundation is already laid in our minds, by the well-founded popular opinion entertained here of Spanish integrity and honor. I hope my presumption in hinting this will be pardoned. if in any thing on this side the globe I can render either service or pleasure to your royal highness, your commands will enake me happy. With the utmost esteem and veneration, I have the honor to be your Serene Highness's most obedient and most humble servant,
To DR. PRIESTLEY.
Paris, Jan. 27, 1777. I received your very kind letter of February last, some time in September. Major Carleton, who was su kind as to forward it to me, had not an opportunity of doing it sooner. I rejoice to hear of your continual progress in those useful discoveries ; I find that you have set all the philosophers of Europe at work upon fired air; and it is with great pleasure I observe how high you stand in their opinion ; for I enjoy my friends' fame as my own.
The hint you gave me jocularly, that you did not quite despair of the philosopher's stone, draws from me a request, that when you have found it, you will take care to lose it again; for I believe in my conscience that mankind are wicked enough to continue slaughtering one another as long as they can find money to pay the butchers. But of all the wars in my time, this on the part of England appears to me the wickedest ; having no cause but malice against liberty,
and the jealousy of commerce. And I think the crime seems likely to meet with its proper punishment; a total loss of her own liberty, and the destruction of her own com
I suppose you would like to know something of the state of affairs in America. In all probability we shall be much stronger the next campaign than we were in the last ; better armed, better disciplined, and with more ammunition. When I was at the camp before Boston, the army had not five rounds of powder a man; this was kept a secret even from our people, The world wondered that we so seldom fired a cannon : 'we could not afford it: but we now make powder in plenty.
To me it seems, as it has always done, that this war must end in our favor, and in the ruin of Britain, if she does not speedily put an end to it. An English gentleman here the other day, in company with some French, remarked, that it was folly in France not to make war immediately: And in England, replied one of them, not to make peace.
Do not believe the reports you hear of our internal divisions. We are, I believe, as much united as any people ever were, and as firmly,
Paris, Feb. 8, 1777.
in calling me rebel ; you should wait for the event, which will determine whether it is a rebellion or only a revolution. Here the ladies are more civil; they call us les Insurgens; a character that usually pleases them : and methinks all other women who smart, or have smarted under the tyravny of a bad husband, ought to be fixed in revolution principles, and act accordingly.
i In October 1775.