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your mother; of course you and I saw and conversed with each other much and often. It is to all our honors, that in all that time we never had among us the smallest misunderstanding. Our friendship has been all clear sunshine, without any the least clouds in its hemisphere. Let me conclude by saying to you, what I have had too frequent occasions to say to my other remaining old friends, the fewer we become, the more let us love one another. Adieu, &c.

B. FRANKLIN.

TO THE RIGHT HON. EARL OF Buchan.

Acquisition of lands, and forming settlements in America. My LORD,

Passy, March 17, 1783. I received the letter your Lordship did me the honor of writing to me, and am obliged by your kind congratulations on the return of peace, which I hope will be lasting

With regard to the terms on which lands may be acquired in America, and the manner of beginning new settlements on them, I cannot give better information than may be found in a book lately printed in London, under some such title as Letters from a Pennsylvanian Farmer, by Hector St. John. The only encouragements we hold out to strangers are, a good climate, fertile soil, wholesome air and water, plenty of provisions and fuel, good pay for labor, kind neighbors, good laws, liberty, and a hearty welcome: the rest depends on a man's own industry and virtue. Lands are cheap, but they must be bought. - All settlements are undertaken at private expense: the public contributes nothing but defence and justice. I should not however expect much emigration from a country so much drained of men as yours' must have been

· Scotland.

by the late war ; since the more have left it, the more room and the more encouragement remains for those who staid at home. But this you can best judge of; and I have long observed of your people that their sobriety, frugality, industry, and honesty, seldom fail of success in America, and of procuring them a good establishment among us.

I do not recollect the circumstance you are pleased to mention of my having saved a citizen at St. Andrews, by giving a turn to his disorder; and I am curious to know what the disorder was, and what the advice I gave which proved so salutary. With great regard I have the honor to be, my Lord, your Lordship’s most obedient and most humble servant,

B. FRANKLIN.

To Wm. JONES, Esg.2

DEAR FRIEND,

Passy, March 17, 1783. I duly received your obliging letter of November 16. You will have since learnt how much I was then, and have been continually engaged in public affairs; and your goodness will excuse my not having answered sooner. You announced your intended marriage with my much respected friend, Miss Anna Maria, which I assure you gave me great pleasure, as I cannot conceive a match more likely to be happy, from the amiable qualities' each of you possess so plentifully. You mention its taking place as soon as a prudent attention to worldly interests would permit. I just now

! It was a fever in which the Earl of Buchan, then Lord Cadross, lay sick at St. Andrews; and the advice was, not to blister, according to the old practice and the opinion of the learned Dr. Simson, brother of the celebrated geometrician at Glasgow.

2 Afterwards Sir William Jones.

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learn from Mr. Hodgson, that you are appointed to an honorable and profitable place in the Indies; so I expect now soon to hear of the wedding, and to receive the profile. With the good bishop's permission, I will join my blessing with his; adding my wishes that you may return from that corrupting country with a great deal of money honestly acquired, and with full as much virtue as you carry out with you.

The engraving of my medal, which you know was projected before the peace, is but just finished. None are yet struck in hard metal, but will be in a few days: in the mean time, having this good opportunity by Mr. Penn, I send you one of the epreuves. You will see that I have profited of some of your ideas, and adopted the mottos you were so kind as to furnish.

I am at present quite recovered from my late illness, and flatter myself that I may, in the ensuing year, be able to undertake the trip to England, for the pleasure of seeing once more my dear friends there, among whom the bishop and his family stand foremost in my estimation and affection.

I thank you much for your good wishes respecting me. Mine for your welfare and prosperity are not less earnest and sincere; being with great truth, dear sir, your affectionate friend, and most obedient servant,

B. FRANKLIN.

P.$. Please to present my respects to the club. 1 always remember with pleasure the agreeable hours I had the happiness of spending with them.

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TO THE LORD BISHOP OF St. AsAPH, (Dr. Shipley.)

On the peace with America.

Passy, March 17, 1783. I received with great pleasure my dear and respected friend's letter of the 5th justant, as it informed me of the welfare of a family I so much esteem and love.

The clamor against the peace in your parliament would alarm me for its duration, if I were not of opinion with you, that the attack is rather against the minister. I am confident none of the opposition would have made a better peace for England if they had been in his place; at least I am sure that Lord Stormont, who seems loudest in railing at it, is not the man that could have mended it. My reasons I will give you when I have what I hope to have, the great happiness of seeing you once more, and conversing with you. They talk much of there being no reciprocity in our treaty: they think nothing then of our passing over in silence the atrocities committed by their troops, and demanding no satisfaction for their wanton burnings and devastation of our fair towns and countries. They have heretofore confessed the war to be unjust, and nothing is plainer in reasoning than that the mischiefs done in an unjust war should be repaired. Can Englishmen be so partial to themselves, as to imagine they have a right to plunder and destroy as much as they please, and then, without satisfying for the injuries they have done, to have peace on equal terms ? We were favorable, and did not demand what justice entitled us to. We shall probably be blamed for it by qur constituents; and I still think it would be the interest of England voluntarily to offer reparation of those injuries, and effect it as much as may be in her power.

But this is an interest she will never see,

Let us now forgive and forget. Let each country seek its advancement in its own internal advantages of arts and agriculture, not in retarding or preventing the prosperity of the other. America will, with God's blessing, become a great and happy country; and England, if she has at length gained wisdom, will have gained something more valuable, and more essential to her prosperity, than all she has lost; and will still be a great and respectable nation. Her great disease at present is the number and enormous salaries and emoluments of office. Avarice and ambition are strong passions, and separately act with great force on the human mind; but when both are united, and may be gratified in the same object, their violence is almost irresistible, and they hurry men headlong into factions and contentions dstructive of all good government. "As long therefore as these great emoluments subsist, your parliament will be a stormy sea, and your public councils confounded by private interests, But it requires much public spirit and virtue to abolish them; more perhaps than can now be found in a nation so long corrupted.

B. FRANKLIN,

To SIR JOSEPH BANKS.

On the return of peace. Dear Sir,

Passy, July 27, 1783. I received your very kind letter by Dr. Blagden, and esteem myself much honored by your friendly repiembrance. I have been too much and too closely engaged in public affairs since his being here, to enjoy all the benefit of his conversation you were so good as to intend me. I hope soon to have more leisure, and to spend a part of it in those studies that are much more agreeable to ine than political operations,

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