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invita, o regina, tuo de vertice cessi,

invita : adiuro teque tuumque caput, digna ferat quod siquis inaniter adiurarit:

sed qui se ferro postulet esse parem ?
ille quoque eversus mons est quem maximum in orbe

progenies Thiae clara supervehitur,
cum Medi peperere novum mare cumque iuventus

per medium classi barbara navit Athon.
quid facient crines, cum ferro talia cedant?

Iuppiter, ut Chalybon omne genus pereat, et qui principio sub terra quaerere venas

institit ac ferri frangere duritiem !

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39. Cf. Verg. Aen. 6, 460.: invitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.

40. adiuro ... caput: the fragment of Callimachus (35 b, Schneider), onu te kapòv óuoda góv Te Biov, shows how closely Catullus here followed his original, preserving the acc. with adiuro, a construction that does not appear again before Vergil (Aen. 12, 816: adiuro Stygii caput implacabile fontis).

41. Note the inverted order. digna (acc.): i.e. poenam.

42. qui: for the regular substantive form quis. — ferro: referring to the shears that clipped the lock.

43. ille ... mons : “that famous mountain,' Athos. — quoque: i.e. as well as I, a hapless lock of hair.

- eversus : sc. ferro. The hyperboles in this sentence are uttered naïvely by the lock.

44. progenies Thiae : Helios.

45. Medi: the hosts of Xerxes. - novum mare: the canal cut through the isthmus of Athos at the time of the invasion of Greece.

46. navit: cf. 64, 1: pinus dicuntur liquidas Neptuni nasse per undas.

47. That the mood in such questions depends on the feeling of the writer is shown clearly by a comparison of Verg. Ec. 3, 16: quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fures ? Livy, 21, 10, 11: dedemus ergo Hannibalem ? dicet aliquis.

48. Iuppiter: cf. v. 30, n.; Hor. Sat. 2, 1, 42: o pater et rex Iuppiter, ut pereat positum robigine telum. Chalybon: a people of Pontus, celebrated for their skill in mining and iron-working.

50. ferri ... duritiem: = ferrum durum ; cf. Lucr. 5, 1241 : aes atque aurum ferrumque repertumst et simul argenti pondus;

abiunctae paullo ante comae mea fata sorores

lugebant, cum se Memnonis Aethiopis unigena inpellens nictantibus aera pennis

obtulit Arsinoes Locridos ales equus,
isque per aetherias me tollens avolat umbras

et Veneris casto collocat in gremio.
ipsa suum Zephyritis eo famulum legarat,

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53. nictantibus Bentley nutantibus V mutantibus M mitantibus, motantibus, natantibus, various minor authorities. 54. Locridos Bentley elocridicos VR Cypridos Bergk. ales D alis VR.

2,449: validi silices ac duri robora ontory of Zephyrion, near Alexanferri aeraque.

dria, whence is derived also the 51. paullo ante: to be taken name Zephyritis (v. 57). — Locriwith abiunctae (sc. a me). The dos: it is possible that the apbereavement had but just oc- pearance of this obscure epithet curred, that very day. For the here may be due to confusion meter see Intr. $ 42, I (5) (6). or comparison of this particular

52. Aethiopis : the epithet may Zephyrion with the more famous have significance as referring to Italian promontory of the same the dark color of Memnon's name in Bruttii, which from early brother, the ales equus of v. 54. times was settled by the Locrians. Cf. also umbras (v. 55).

The term Cypridos, if it can be 53. unigena : "own brother,'i.e. justified critically as the correct Emathion, who, like Memnon, was reading here, is more appropriate a son of Eos and Tithonus ; cf. and more accurate historically. 64, 300. The rendering, only. Cf. P. W. 2, 1286. — ales equus : begotten' does not agree with probably the ostrich, here identiOvid, Met. 13, 608-609: pariter fied with Emathion (cf. n. on v. sonuere sorores innumerae. — nic- 52); Pausanias (9, 31, I) describes tantibus : the imagery has a rare the service rendered to Arsinoë charm.

by an ostrich : TÌv 8è 'A polvonv 54. Arsinoes: Arsinoë II, otpovéos pépet yalan rwv ÅTTÝdaughter of Ptolemy I; wife first vov. Others understand the phrase of Lysimachus, king of Thrace, to refer to Zephyrus. later of her brother, Ptolemy Phila- 57. Zephyritis : cf. n. on v. 54. delphus (cf. v. 22, n.). Among - famulum : i.e. the ales equus of other honors, she was identified v. 54, the ostrich. Cf. Ovid, Met. with Venus, and a temple was 3, 229, where Actaeon's hounds erected in her name on the prom- are his famuli ; and Manil. 4, 760,

Graia Canopiis incola litoribus.
hic iuveni Ismario ne solum in lumine caeli

ex Ariadneis aurea temporibus
fixa corona foret, sed nos quoque fulgeremus

devotae flavi verticis exuviae,
uvidulam a fletu cedentem ad templa deum me

sidus in antiquis diva novum posuit :
virginis et saevi contingens namque leonis

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59. hic iuveni Ismario Ellis hi dii ven ibi vario V hi dij venibi (or ven ibi) vario R arduei ibi Haupt invida enim Vahlen numen ibi Ritschl hic liquidi Friedrich. lumine or limine w mumine R numine V.

where the famulus of Cybele is crown') at the translation of Arithe lion.

adne to heaven is a theme of fre58. Graia : referring to the quent recurrence in the poets : Greek ancestry of Arsinoë as com- Ovid, Fast. 3, 459-516; 5, 345 : pared to her ultimate home in Baccho placuisse coronam ex AriEgypt (Canopiis). This Greek adneo sidere nosse potes; Met. 8, woman took precedence of all the 177-182; Manil. 5, 21: Ariadmembers of the royal house of neae caelestia dona coronae ; Prop. Egypt in becoming the first of 3, 17, 7: testatur in astris lyncibus the Ptolemies to be deified. The ad caelum vecta Ariadna tuis. Alexandrian obscurity of this whole 62. flavi: the Homeric ideal ; passage may easily have been en- so Ariadne's hair is described by hanced by the poet's ignorance of the same epithet in 64, 63 : flavo Egyptian conditions.

... vertice. 59. hic: temporal. - iuveni Is- 63. uvidulam: a characteristic mario: Bacchus, whose vine was Catullus diminutive. - fletu : due abundant on Ismarus; cf. Verg. to its compulsory condition as Georg. 2, 37 : iuvat Ismara Bac- exuviae. — templa : cf. Enn. Ann. cho conserere.

1, 49 (Vahlen): ad caeli caerula 60. ex Ariadneis . . . corona : templa; Lucr. 1, 1014: nec mare at the marriage of Ariadne to Bac- nec tellus neque caeli lucida chus, after her desertion by The templa. seus, Venus gave her as a bridal 65. virginis : the constellation gift a magnificent crown of gold Virgo was variously identified with and precious gems (made by Dike-Astraea, Isis, Tyche, ErigVulcan). Its metamorphosis into one, etc. Cf. Class. Dict. -a constellation (“the northern namque : on the position cf.

lumina, Callisto iuncta Lycaoniae,
vertor in occasum, tardum dux ante Booten,

qui vix sero alto mergitur Oceano.
sed quamquam me nocte premunt vestigia divum,

lux autem canae Tethyi restituit :
pace tua fari hic liceat, Rhamnusia virgo :

namque ego non ullo vera timore tegam,
nec si me infestis discerpent sidera dictis,

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Draeger, 2, p. 162; Tib. 1, 7, 12, n. “inasmuch as the constellation is - leonis : Zeus was responsible in a perpendicular position, occufor the metamorphosis of the pies some time, whereas his rising famous Nemean lion, slain by is rapid, being effected in a horiHercules, into the constellation zontal position.” Leo, the fifth sign of the zodiac. 69. quamquam belongs to resti

66. Callisto : dat. ; but one of tuit as well as to premunt; the several irregular forms in the decl. principal clause begins at v. 75:of this word. Her history is vari- premunt vestigia divum : cf. Arat. ously told, the adj. Lycaoniae here 359 : Dewv ÚTÒ moooi popcîtai; having patronymic force. As at- Manil. (1, 803) adopts this phrase. tendant of Artemis in Arcadia she 7 0. Tethyi : to whom, rather became by Zeus mother of Arcas, than to her husband Oceanus (cf. was changed into a bear, and later, v. 68), the maidenly modesty of either after death, or to escape the Coma prefers to represent herdeath, into a constellation, this self as surrendered for the passage being one of the many identifica- by day (lux) back around the tions explanatory of the origin of earth to her next rising. Cf. Tib. Ursa Major. —- iuncta : “next to. 2, 5, 59-60.

67. dux ante : a touch of pride 71-74. Parenthetical. that she should show the way to 71. Rhamnusia virgo : Nemesis, the “oxen-driver,' or charioteer, so called from her temple at RhamBoötes. — Booten : the constel- nus in Attica, whose province it lated Arcas, son of Callisto ; or was to punish presumptuous words. Lycaon; or Icarius.

Cf. 68, 77 ; 50, 20 : ne poenas 68. vix sero ... mergitur: a Nemesis reposcat a te. characteristic noticed by Homer, 73. nec: sc. tegam. Only if Od. 5, 272 : óvie dúovta Bootny, tum, or some other emphatic word, and explained by Sir G. C. Lewis were expressed, should we think (Astronomy of the Ancients, p. 59) nec=ne . . . quidem. This verse on the ground that its setting is an emphatic reiteration of the

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condita quin veri pectoris evoluam :
non his tam laetor rebus, quam me afore semper,

afore me a dominae vertice discrucior,
quicum ego, dum virgo quondam fuit omnibus expers

unguentis, una milia multa bibi.
nunc, vos optato quom iunxit lumine taeda,

non prius unanimis corpora coniugibus
tradite nudantes reiecta veste papillas,

quam iucunda mihi munera libet onyx,

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77. expers V expersa Heinsius expressa Statius ex pars Munro. 78. unguentis V unguenti si Lachmann unguenti surii Auratus. 79. quom Haupt quem V quas w. 80. prius w post G. 82. quam V quin Lachmann.

previous one. — si = etiamsi. - 78. una : to be taken with discerpent: probably the word is quicum. more literal than figurative in the 79. nunc = vův dé = ut nunc est. mind of the poet; but as a meta- --" Blessings brighten as they phor it must be regarded as a árať take their tight," and under the deyóuevov. Cf. Cic. Ad Att. 2, changed conditions, the lock ea19, 3 : qua dominus qua advocati gerly demands in its translated sibilis conscissi. The tense signi- state offerings of the choicest perfies the probability of the fate. — fumes from newly wedded brides, dictis : instr.

who by the act will remind her of 74. quin indicates that tegam her lost home and her beloved was used as a verb of “hindering. mistress.— lumine=die, as in v.90. - evoluam ; cf. Intr. § 43.

80. unanimis : .in mutual affec75. his ... rebus : i.e. the tion.' great honors recently described. 82. onyx: an ointment vase

76. afore me : emphatic and made of onyx. They were even artistic inversion, forming a chias- more common, especially in Egypt, mus with the expression in v. 75. of alabaster (alabastron). For

77. expers : in the active sense, typical shapes v. Dennis, Cities and with concessive force, though and Cemeteries of Etruria, p. cxxv, caring little for.' Cf. Plaut. Amph. ill. 77 and 78. Cf. Hor. Car. 4, 12, 713 : eo more expertem te ; Ovid, 17: nardi parvus onyx eliciat Met. I, 479; Hor. Car. 3, II, II. cadum ; Prop. 2, 13, 30; St. Mark Cf. also K. P. H. in BPW., Vol. 14, 3: “alabaster box (R.V. 30, Sp. 285.

“cruse ") of ointment." ROM. EL. POETS — 6 81

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