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et totiens nostro Memphi cruenta malo, tres ubi Pompeio detraxit harena triumphos !

tollet nulla dies hanc tibi, Roma, notam. issent Phlegraeo melius tibi funera campo,

vel tua si socero colla daturus eras, scilicet incesti meretrix regina Canopi,

in v. 35.

35. tres

34. totiens: in particular, in pared to that of the Giants on the the Alexandrian war of Caesar, the neighboring Phlegraean plains of various engagements during the Macedonia. The former interprestruggle of Octavian against tation seems to have been accepted the power of Cleopatra, and the by Juvenal (10, 283 sqq.); the event to which reference is made latter, which suits better the de

- nostro ... malo : one velopment of the thought here, of Propertius's vague ablatives: was apparently in the mind of to our hurt.'

Lucan (7, 144 sqq.; 8, 530, 531). triumphos : over – tibi: Pompey, though there is Numidia (80 B.C.), Spain (71 no new vocative to change the B.C.), and Mithridates (61 B.C.); person addressed from that in the cf. Cic. Pro Sest. 61, 129: vir is, previous verse; cf. Tib. 1, 7, 3, n. qui tripertitas orbis terrarum oras 38. vel . . . si: “even if' atque regiones tribus triumphis even though,' if the second interadiunctas huic imperio notavit. pretation of v. 37 is accepted. ubi: used loosely of tellus in gen socero : Julius Caesar, whose eral. — detraxit harena: Pompey daughter Julia became Pompey's was murdered in the little boat in wife in 59 B.C.

daturus eras : which he was proceeding to land, i.e. in losing in the battle of Pharand his corpse was left upon the salus, if we accept the second intersandy beach, naked and headless. pretation of v. 37.

37. issent = fuissent : cf. Juv. 39. scilicet: a sarcastic intro7, 29: dignus venias hederis ; Ger duction to a most bitterly scornful manWie geht's ?”—Phlegraeo ... passage.

- incesti ... Canopi: campo: a willful or careless ambi

Canopus, a notorious resort twelve guity. The expression may

refer miles east of Alexandria, was reto Campania, where Pompey was puted far to outdo the excesses of dangerously ill at Naples, in 50 B.C. Baiae; Juvenal, who knew Egypt (cf. Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1, 86); or to at first hand, speaks (15, 46) of Pharsalus, where he was finally famoso Canopo; and Kavwdefeated by Caesar, in a battle βίσμος became proverbial. which might be poetically com meretrix regina: so also Pliny,


una Philippeo sanguine adusta nota,
ausa lovi nostro latrantem opponere Anubim,

et Tiberim Nili cogere ferre minas,
Romanamque tubam crepitanti pellere sistro,

baridos et contis rostra Liburna sequi, foedaque Tarpeio conopia tendere saxo,

iura dare et statuas inter et arma Mari.


N. H. 9, 119. With fine irony war vessel (C. S.). The Bâpus Cleopatra is called queen of Ca was a clumsy river transport pronopus, rather than of Egypt. pelled by poles (contis).- Liburna :

40. una : the poet speaks rela swiftly moving galleys like those tively rather than absolutely. -- used by the Illyrian pirates. They Philippeo sanguine : source, the had played an important part in customary preposition being omit the victory of Actium. ted. The Ptolemies claimed to 45. Tarpeio . . . saxo : where trace their descent from Philip of the heroic Roman character had Macedon. — nota: ablative. No been so often exhibited, and death infamy like Cleopatra's had ever scorned. conopia : to a Roman overtaken the Ptolemies.

soldier mosquito netting would be 41. ausa : sc. est. - latrantem : the extreme of effeminacy. Cf. the Egyptian god Anubis was rep Hor. Epod. 9, 15: interque signa resented with a jackal's, or dog's, turpe militaria sol adspicit conohead; Vergil (Aen. 8, 698) and pium. . Ovid (Met. 9, 690) use the ex 46. iura dare: what a feminine pression latrator Anubis. The regime like that of Cleopatra would inferiority of Egypt to Rome is be at Rome is hinted from the implied in the series of compar previous verse, and the effect of isons: (1) great gods ; (2) local the imaginary picture is heightriver gods ; (3) army; (4) navy; ened by the contrast with the (5) national character ; (6) laws. rule of the most virile heroes in 42. Cf. 2, 33, 20:

cum Tiberi

Roman history, like Marius. Nilo gratia nulla fuit.

statuas: of the great gods of 43. crepitanti : ‘jingling.' To Rome and of famous Romans. rouse them to deeds of battle they They grew so numerous that they must rely on the barbarian sis began to be removed by the State trum, a mere adjunct of their from the Capitol as early as 179 characteristic worship.

B.C., from the Forum in 158 B.C. 44. baridos: it was like match arma Mari: the trophies that ing our canal boat with the steam Marius won from Jugurtha, and

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nunc :

quid nunc Tarquinii fractas iuvat esse secures,

nomine quem simili vita superba notat,

si mulier patienda fuit ? cape, Roma, triumphum, 50 et longum Augusto salva precare diem.

. fugisti tamen in timidi vaga flumina Nili:

accepere tuae Romula vincla manus. bracchia spectavi sacris admorsa colubris, et trahere occultum membra soporis iter.

51. vaga DV vada NFL. from the Cimbri and Teutons, set 52. accepere .. manus : figup on the Capitoline hill, were uratively. — Romula : this adjectorn down by Sulla, but restored tive is used also in 4, 4, 26; the by Julius Caesar. Cf. Suet. Tul. usual prose form is Romulea

Romana ; cf. Hor. Carm. Saec. 47. quid : acc. of inner obj. 47: Romulae genti. (cognate).

i.e. if such 53. bracchiă: cf. Intr. § 43. conditions are to prevail ; referring spectavi: Propertius doubtless to the first clause in v. 49. saw in the triumphal procession Tarquinii: the last king of Rome. an effigy of Cleopatra with the iuvat: SC. Romam.

asp that common tradition in litthe sign of absolute power, per erature and art has accepted as petuated in the insignia of the the means of her death, though consuls, the fasces.

ere, as often, the tradition rests 48. nomine: i.e. Tarquinius on an uncertain basis. Cf. Hor. Superbus.

Car. I, 37, 26; Plut. Ant. 86. 49. cape: "rejoice, O Rome, sacris : i.e. to Isis ; cf. Ovid, in thy triumph' (C. S.).

Am. 2, 13, 13: pigraque dabatur 50. diem = vitam.

circa donaria serpens : Juv. 6, 538 : 51. The subject is Cleopatra, et movisse caput visa est argentea with another of Propertius's sud ser

pens. den transitions, and unannounced. 54. Propertius mixes his meta

– tamen: i.e. in spite of the pre phors, the last sleep, and that sumptuous pride voiced in vv. journey from which there is no re39-46. — timidi: the epithet is turn. The frame drinks in the transferred from Cleopatra by poison which causes the queen to metaphor (C. S.). The fleeing start on the journey to the world fleet is included also. -— vaga: of the dead. Only Propertius *wandering' through various would dare to speak of draining mouths in its course to the sea. a draught of journey!'

secures :


'non hoc, Roma, fui tanto tibi cive verenda'

dixit et adsiduo lingua sepulta mero.' septem urbs alta iugis, toto quae praesidet orbi,

femineas timuit territa Marte minas. Hannibalis spolia et victi monimenta Syphacis

et Pyrrhi ad nostros gloria fracta pedes ! Curtius expletis statuit monimenta lacunis,


at Decius misso proelia rupit equo, Coclitis abscissos testatur semita pontes,

est cui cognomen corvus habere dedit.

55. fui w fuit 0.

55. hoc . . . tanto ... cive: the critics and the transpositions Augustus is complimented by being by the editors in the latter part of referred to under his favorite title this poem are incomprehensible. of Princeps. The abl. abs. is Cf. Vahlen, Ind. Lect. 1886-87, equivalent to a clause of proviso. Berlin. - fui: Cleopatra is speaking.

61. Here follow instances of 56. Sc. non fuit verenda with self-sacrificing heroism to save the lingua, referring to Antony. State in earlier days. — Curtius :

57. toto : cf. 2, 1, 47 (uno); the story is told in Livy, 7, 6. – Tib. 4, 6, 9, n.

monimenta : such word repetitions 58. Marte = bello.

are not uncommon in the Roman 59. The general sense of this elegy; cf. vv. 16, 17; 19, 21; 36, fine outburst is that in Augustus 40; Vahlen, 1.c. Rome had a hero far greater than 62. at: the method of Decius in all her past history, and pos was a different one; see Livy, 8, 9; sessing him she scarcely need fear 10, 28; Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1, 37, 89. Jove himself (C. S.), much less a 63. Coclitis : Horatius Cocles,

The glory of defeating the hero of the bridge; cf. Livy, 2, Hannibal, Syphax (a Numidian 10. – semita : the location of the king who helped Hannibal), and street named after Horatius is not Pyrrhus, as representing masculine

known. warriors from Greece and Africa, 64. est cui: M. Valerius Corthe countries that Cleopatra repre

vus; see Livy, 7, 26. habere = sented, is appropriately contrasted habendam ; cf. Verg. Aen. 5, 260: here with the terrorizing influence loricam quam Demoleo detraxerat she had over Rome, expressed in ipse victor . . . donat habere viro; v. 58. The animadversions of

R. 1363.



haec di condiderant, haec di quoque moenia servant:

vix timeat salvo Caesare Roma Iovem.
nunc ubi Scipiadae classes, ubi signa Camilli,

aut modo Pompeia Bospore capta manu ?
Leucadius versas acies memorabit Apollo.

tantum operis belli sustulit una dies.
at tu, sive petes portus seu, navita, linques,


Caesaris in toto sis memor Ionio.

never saw.

65. condiderant: even before vocative. It was from Panticathese heroic deeds the gods had paeum on the Cimmerian Bosporus, established Rome.

which Pliny (N. H. 4, 78) calls 66. salvo Caesare :

the con

the edge of Europe, that the body struction is a repetition of hoc of the dead Mithridates was sent to tanto cive (v. 55). The Pompey at Amisus; but Properthought of the verse is contrasted tius flatters the memory of Pompey with that of v. 58.

by intimating that the latter con67. nunc ubi : i.e. in compari- quered a region that he probably son with the glorious victory of Augustus at Actium. -- Scipiadae : 69. Leucadius ... Apollo : the the regular patronymic formation celebrated temple of Apollo on in this family. — classes: the fa the north promontory of the island mous fleet prepared in 45 days in of Leucas looked down upon the 205 B.C. to bring the second Punic battle of Actium. The Leucadian war to a close. The plural, like Apollo was frequently invoked pontes, in v. 63, is purely rhetorical. by sailors. versas acies : cf. Hor. Cf. L. ITTO.

-signa Camilli : taken Epod. 9, 17-20. from the Gauls in 390 B.C.; cf. 70. tantum operis belli: i.e. Livy, 5, 49, 7: dictator ... tri the feet of Cleopatra.

una dies : umphans in urbem rediit ; Verg. that of the battle of Actium. Aen. 6, 825: referentem signa 72. Augustus has cleared the Camillum.

seas of all the enemies of Rome, 68. modo : “but recently,' con including pirates. Cf. Hor. Car. trasted with the other great Roman 4, 5, 19: pacatum volitant per victories mentioned. Bospore : mare navitae.

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